photo of person from Nepal Sindhulpalchok
Nepal glossary

Sher Bahadur







Hindu, Magar caste




Dandajheri VDC, Nawalparasi


January 1994



What is your name grandfather?
Sher Bahadur Thapa Magar.
Section 1
How old are you?
77 years old.
How many members are there in your family?
We are altogether 26 members.

Who and who are there in your family?
There are two wives, five sons, four grandsons. There are two married daughters and one unmarried, and altogether three daughters and seven grandchildren.

Don't you feel any difficulty to feed them along and keeping respect of kith and kin?
In some places there is and some places there is not.

Being a big family there is no need of using many labourers for farming?
There is no need of them in small works but for big work we have to use labour.

When did you do your first marriage?
I did my first marriage at the age of 20.

It means your sons also did marriage at the age of 19/20-22/23, is it not?
Some did at the age of 20 and some at the age of 17/18.

How many daughters do you have, grandfather?
Three; two are married and one is not.

Your family has 26 people. It is easy for Magars to live in the family members of 26. Nowadays we do find big families. In early days it is said that even bigger family used to live together. What is the habit of Magar who live in a family though they are big?
What habit is it? Some live separate though they have a small family. Some stay together. They live together until they feel secure. If they are not satisfied they will live separately.
Section 2
In the family of these Chettri, Bahun, Bhat Kami Damai live separately even though they are only 6/7 members. They cannot live in a big family too, but Magar and Gurung can live in a big family. What is the main cause of it? Would you tell this thing?
It will be easy to do work in a big family. Though some go to the outside, some can sustain the family. One will get a chance to go to other states. One will get a turn to do work. They do not try to separate as much as possible. Magar do not discuss and they are tight lipped. Magar are very simple and innocent. They do not fight and listen to others’ complaints. So because of that they are able to live together.

What are the differences in expenditure, living and eating between a big family and a small one?
There is a difference. In fact in the ration of expenditure it is the same but small family's expenses are lesser than bigger one. In a big family many will get the chance to rest and will go to some other places and earn and there is expense also accordingly.

Magar especially, lived in the hills only. They descended to the plain only later. Those who descended early are maybe of 15/20 years otherwise only a few came down. All Magar only live in the hills. But Chettri, Bahun and Bhat want to live in the plain or in the comfortable place, why is it?
In those days there was malaria in this place. Malaria used to trouble more. In the beginning of creation Magar used to live in hills and Bahun in the plain. They might have lived in the hill due to fear of malaria.

Does malaria not infect Bahun and Bhat, grandfather?
We did not see them troubled by malaria. This fever used to trouble only Magar and Gurung mostly. If we slept in the veranda, we would be infected.

Tharu people are not infected by malaria in the terrain. They have been living there for generations in the scorch hot of plain and they have the habit of overcoming the sting of mosquito but Bahun, Chettri and Bhat are not like that?
They are not like Tharu but they have been living there in the plain from their birth so they could resist it. What happens to us is that we have habit of living in the cold weather so if we stay two night in the plain it will infect us. Now we have not seen malaria here. Nothing happened to those who have been living in the plain.

During the time of malaria do you know anybody infecting it here?
So many people were dead because of malaria here. Like malaria came, fever came, feel cold, sweating and again fever. And if not getting well for a long time, low fever would come alternatively. If that fever did not get well, it would be difficult to get well.

Did malaria kill people in this area also, grandfather?
Yes, it did.

Did some of your relative die because of it?
Our elder and younger brothers died.
Section 3
In this Bhoga?
Yes in this Bhoga.

This Bhoga in the height?
We have it in that plain down below.

Did you hear any incident that many people were killed by malaria in the villages in a hill place like Bhoga?
It was not heard that all people were killed, however, many people died. In some places only a few people died.

Magar has many festivals. There are many types of songs and dance they have. They used to eat and dance many times. In one way it will hamper the health doing this without sleeping and in other way there will be loss of food and cannot do progress. One thing this is that we have many merriments. Do you think that our traditional culture should be preserved by doing singing and dancing or we have to move according to the time?
With regard to expense, if expense is to be controlled, dancing and singing should be stopped. If we should not care about expense then we should continue singing and dancing but there is no avail by dancing and singing. And there is no possibility to accumulate by dancing and singing. No knowledge could be gained, only merriment. There is more expense in the festivals. Chettri and Bahun also celebrate general festivals but Magar celebrate by cutting a beast and preparing other dishes, so they spend more.

Grandfather you told that dancing and singing cannot earn money. Only expense increases and it also spoils time. Grandfather you had been to service also. You know that in the film people are making money or keeping their livelihood by singing and dancing. Can't we make it more enjoyable by making it more interesting to all and make it more commercial?
Oh that is not possible for all. Even after making a film it is not a thing that can be shown in the villages. It is only possible in the city and where there is light. Here there is no facility of light in our houses of hills and there is not place to show it and earn money. I have not seen such a thing here. Merriment is also only for one or two days, it cannot feed us. It cannot earn money and it is only to make one happy. Those who do not do farming staying with the family, when only involve in this merriment. Those who are engaged in the farming need no merriment and also do not go around doing dancing and singing.

It is said that Magar has many dances and songs. They do not have other things to do merriment. They only live in the hill. There is no facility of light in the hills, and also of transportation. So because of this, it is said that they do more dancing and singing. Is this true? Do they do it for not getting a chance to do other forms or merriment?
From the very beginning of tradition they have been doing this. That's why they are doing this. There is no other means to see in this village. But there is no benefit from it. During the work if there is dance and song we have to leave that to see it.

Fesho dance is the oldest dance of Magar. In that classical story Mahabharat comes. Where Krishna Charitra (character) is mentioned. Magar are the Mongolian origins. But Krishna is Indian origin. But Magar do the dance and song in the Indian culture. Why do Magar sing the Krishna Charitra is it because they do not have their [own] traditional song and dance or what?
Perhaps due to the absence of old traditional song and dance, especially in the hills their own dance and song is Jhangre. Now this Krishna Charitra is in the form of book so because of it, it has become easy to sing. But traditional culture of Magars has not been found in the form of a book. It came down from father to son and son to grandson then lost in oblivion. But they have come in the form of a book. The thing that comes in the form of a book will not be lost. It is so, due to learning from their book.
Section 4
What are the festivals of Magar, grandfather?
Magar's festivals especially in the rainy season are Sawanay Sankranti, and Teej - only for women, and then comes Dashain (the major Nepali festival). Awashi, Paus 15, Maghe Sankranti, Baishaki Purnima but other festivals are not celebrated now which were celebrated before.

You told that Teej is only for women. Does the son-in-law not come if invited?
The son-in-law does not come.
In the Dashain is there any difference in menu and dish between Chettri, Bahun and Bhat and Magar?
There is difference in dishes. Magar cut buffalo, goat and pit (?). And Bhat and Bahun try to cut small animals and celebrate it.

Do Chettri, Bahun and Magar begin to celebrate Dashain from Fulpathi?
They do not celebrate like before.

Magar celebrate Awashi and in Dethiya they invite the members of wife's family for lunch. But why the method of celebrating Tihar is different?
I also do not know the cause. But that is another reason for Bahun.

Is there any difference in the method of celebrating the festival in early days and nowadays?
No difference. People celebrate as it was. Dashain used to be celebrated from the Sathami to Dashami. And today also this custom is prevailing.

In our Dashain it starts by firing a gun in the mailamaand (?) having tika (decorative red spot). Was this the same in those days?
There is no vast difference between those days and today. In the Ashami people use to go to Maila and dance there the whole night. In the Namai there will be slaughtering of animals and in Dashami tika takes place.

Is there any difference between the cloth that you wore before and are wearing now?
Yes there is a difference. There was no custom to wear suit and pant. Those who did jobs in India used to wear like that. People used to wear only vest and belt. We used to wear blanket that we knitted them in our village.
Section 5
There are maybe difference in women's clothing?
Women of those days used to wear muga sari, laharay sari and poshiki sari. Chettri and Bahun wore larahay and poshoki and Magar wore muga. And somebody used to wear makmahal and some used to wear paryalo blouses. They used to wear according to one's economic condition.

What about the food?
There is difference in the food. Now take the example of cigarette, there was Pana brand, lateen brand, cock brand, key brand. Later on bat brand came. And all these brands vanished later on.

These are the products that are brought in from the outside. But in the beginning production front is there any difference in food here?
In the food that is found in the village there is no difference. And there is some difference in drinking articles. Somebody brings it while coming from the foreign. But they eat all food like before. Today people eat chaw-chaw (noodles), so there is little difference.

In those days there was not much farming, there was no road to bring rice from the plain, the plain was also forest. Today people brought rice and make meal. In those days what type of rice people used to eat in the Dashain.
Those who have no land in the hill used to eat maize rice.

But does this tradition still exist?
Now people eat rice meal.

It means there have been some changes come in our society in food and clothing?
There is some only.

The dressing of Magar could recognise them as Magar. But nowadays Magar do not use their traditional dress and food. They use market-made cloth. There is no indigenous cloth and indigenous cloth is also made by imitating foreign style. Which is not like they used to make in the house. That cloth is also change. Is there any changes in our dance like the Ghoto and Chamray?
Ghoto is vanished. There is only Nachen somewhere. There is no such dance in our village.

Is this good, grandfather?
It is good to abandon and also bad to abandon. Where is no benefit from the dance. If there is dancing we have to dance throughout the night without sleeping. They also donate us but tomorrow we have to give them. If they come we have to give them food. We have to give them beer. There will be expense and also waste of time. So it is better to leave it.

Grandfather is not good to leave such tradition we should have kept them alive to show it to others, what do you think about it?
Yes but people do not take it in this way. Not everybody could dance. It takes time to learn it. If one goes in the evening, he will be there all the day and will come tomorrow only.
Section 6
Do they leave it for just it being expensive or because of sleeplessness or being boring like Karowa Hamaray?
For entertainment there is much entertainment in the Nachan rather than Karowa Jhamaray. But it will be difficult to feedback it. For example it needs medal and frock. There should be not others cloth. There will be no fitting cloth for dancers. He has to get it from others. There will not be dance in the rain but only in the winter. Poor has to give up all. There is a lot of entertainment in Nachen but not in Jamaray Karowa. Jamaray also cannot bring benefits. Nachan can bring gift and goods.

No, if there is body he would bring woman?
He brings only sometime. In bringing girl it would be better to bring a suitable girl if he bring unsuitable or unfriendly, it would bring quarrel.

We have our own manner that can give impression to others that we are Magar. There would be Karowa Jamaray in the village. Now everybody Sanyashi, Chettri Bhat know about Karowa Jamaray. Or our culture also reach in their village. But why do not Curka and Palan or Bahun come our village of Magar?
It's because that Churka and Balan do not provide immense entertainment that's why our Magar society cannot adopt it. When Magar of our Magar society hill had gone to plain they also brought Karuwa Jhawray and other caste also learnt it and began to sing and dance it. But Nachana cannot be dance be Chettri and Bahun.

Grandfather, what are the things you have done in your life?
What I have done in my life. At first I did farming. Then after I went to foreign. I joined army in 1998 B.S. it means 52 years ago. At that time it was Rana regime. At that time we did not get the chance to get education. People were poor, the development was not opened in Nepal. No foreigner would help us. No foreign countries knew about our poverty. During the British time I joined the army. From 40-45 there was the second world war. From the West Germany and from the East Japan came. So because of that so many people joined the army at that time. British did not trust people of India much that's why they admitted the Nepalese.

At that time did the people had the people to join with galla (person who takes others to be admitted in the army)?
I went with the galla. They sent the galla. And the galla took us.

How many people joined from here?
We were many and it would be difficult to recognise all. 5/6 from Ramkot, 3/4 from Ghot Ghada, 4/5 from Koteshwor, and most of the villager represented only 4/5. First all measurement were done here then took us to Gotakput and again did measurement. We did training in Punjab.

In Punjab only Gorkha army used to take training or other army also?
Other army also use to get training. They had different place for training. They used to get training in places like Palampur, Amasla, Balour, Jalandhar, Ambala. In those days Pakistan was not divided. There would be training in Amadaba, Kuta and Yamnagar. We finished training in seven months and were sworn in on eight months.
Section 7
Where did you have to go during the war?
At first I reached Burma during the war with Japan. After Burma, I went to Thailand. We were a few in Thailand. Other who went to Singapore and Malaya were captured and killed. We were met in Thailand with a seven number battalion who went to the east but only a few came [back] alive. We stayed there for one week but we could not go further. After returning we stayed in Assam and war stopped during our stay in Assam. In 1945 we again went to the east then after we went to Ghohat of Pakistan. After staying there for two years in Pakistan I went to Rajmukhi. After Rajmukhi I went to Bahana. After Bana to Punjab and after that to Kashmir. In 1948 a war took place between India and Pakistan. Then Kashmir became an independent country. Pakistan took half later on they asked for help to India till 51% India took all whatever Pakistan took and had to take. Though they were agreed at the time again Pakistan took half of it after starting trouble.

You have told us about Burma. In Burma who were captured were returned or sent back or not?
Some came and some did not come. Those who did not come were killed.

Was there any provision of pension for families of the deceased?
Pensions were given to those name and number were found. Some people are getting it till now. Those who fought with me but were killed their family is getting pension until now.

It means grandfather you had fought with Japan in the east and with the German in the west?
Not with Germany, we fought with Pakistan and Kashmir. Later war took place between India and Pakistan.

During the war what was your most remembering painful incident or anything that amused you?
We had lot of trouble. But there was nothing happened that amused me. Most painful incidence was when firing took place. It was too difficult to save life. We were scattered everywhere. When attack took place from the two sides I felt very uneasy. We did not allow them to enter. I cannot forget this incidence. We underwent so many times this type of trouble.

Were you not wounded?
I was not wounded.

How many friends were killed who went along with you?
Some friends died and some others were left on the way. They could not walk and we could not carry them.

Did you leave them because they were wounded?
It is possible to bring them back who get wounded on the way. While returning wounded were left on the way. It is not possible. We left them rampantly.
Section 8
After that for how many years you did work in the army?
19 years.

In what rank you came out?
In the Hawaldar.

What was your pension when you retired first?
At first it was 35 rupees.

When was it?
It was about 34 years ago.

How much are you getting now?
Now it is 10,000 rupees.

Was 35 rupees used to do worth 10,000 rupees does today?
I bought this farmland for 35 rupees.

How much you brought when you retired?
I bought 3000 rupees.

After coming from the military you bought this land. There were not as today. What did you do after coming from the military?
I came in to my pension in 2016. Since 2017 I have been doing service as a teacher here.

Since then how many years you did service there?
I taught from 2017 to 2040.

When you began to teach here either you thought about it or the district asked you to do teaching?
When I began to teach the district did pay for it. The district also did not appoint a teacher. I was paid by raising funds from the villagers. For two years I got salary from the donation. After that the district appointed me. Only 600 rupees came for one year. After 6/7 years 900 rupees used to come. In this way new education was implemented in the 2031. And the salary was fixed. An SLC teacher got Rs. 200 and under CLC got Rs. 135. I began to teach from 2017. Till 2024 it went up to class five and we asked for lower secondary for class six. This school is older than that school of Buling High School.

It means there were not many people then?
Yes there was. Many people were there than today. They used to come from Nuwakot. It went on continuously, it would be a high school. It should be high school then as there were 60/65 in the lower secondary level only. It raised from 200 to 250 when it was promoted from primary school to lower secondary school. Barmal also cut the numbers Mayar also cut the number. Now the number has become low due to the school neighbourhood. There is a new one opening at Ramkot. Now this school will be running with the only three villages. For lower secondary some go to Buling and some even go to the plain.
Section 9
To read means to get some new knowledge. If some read or study in advance it is for doing a job. Here now educated people are also many and unemployed are also many. What do you think, does this unemployment generating situation come because of this education?
If education is not good there will not be many educated people than our generation. We would get a chance to study if we studied together and the government would follow us. It was a Rana regime and there were no schools. After the end of Rana regime in 2007, the government opened a primary, lower secondary and high school, campus. All got the chance to read. Nowadays there maybe 50% who are educated. It is because of government's lack of initiation that all students cannot be accommodated in a few schools. No new industries are opened in Nepal and all people cannot get employment there because of the many people who become unemployed. There are few jobs but many people.

Grandfather you have worked as a teacher for many years. The education should be job oriented, one should not go to one another for job. One should do his own vocation. You also should think that. After getting education if the government employs them, others employ them or villagers employ them they will get a job, otherwise not. It is the fruit of today, present education. This education is indeed not a good one.
It is a good one. One is educated, one can do work for his house. Because of lack of resources one cannot do anything he can in Nepal. Though he is educated he cannot do any profession due to lack of resources. He has to keep quite though he knows it.

In this area this school had become a lower secondary in 2024 and high school in the Buling. It seems people of that side are educated but Magar of upper belt are not educated. What is the main reason behind Magar's illiteracy?
The main reason for illiteracy as I told you earlier is they indulge in merriment most of the time. They do not concentrate on education. Another is that they have many festivals. They do not care for study after having beer and liquor. Because of uneducated parents of Magar, they do not care about education. We do work in the field so we do not concentrate in the education. They have easy work those who live in the plain. They have less work. They grow more so they could concentrate their time on the education. They put effort for education. Those who stay in the plain are most greedy. They are involved in acquiring wealth and make their wards educated. We Magar do not care about it much.

Looking at the schools of Magar village, from the east to west all teachers are Terrain (from the plain). In some places, there are some that have all. My estimate or guess can be accurate and cannot be. Some Madhishi (plain dwellers) do not know Nepali. They only know their language. There is no question to know Magar language. Our children only knows Magar language, not even Nepali and there is no question to know Hindi. They have come here to know about our children. Because of this teacher and Magar could not be educated our Magar could not be educated. What do you think about it?
From the very beginning they have been talking in Magar language, so they are not able to speak in Nepali also or they feel difficulty to speak Nepali. This is no benefit from arrival of these Madhishe (plain dwellers) teachers here. They cannot speak Nepali properly some of them do not know even how to speak. There is no question to teach our children by them in Magar language.
Section 10
We have talked about the education to children in Magar language. Magar language means children had learn it from the cradle. What should be done to teach our children in Magar language?
If the government opens a school to teach Magar language, there will be many benefits.

Now there is mention in the law, the law has arranged to provide education in the mother language in the primary level. In keeping in view with the law, we have written a book called 'Kancua vivik'. It's from informal education. These children who don't know Nepali could learn first from Magar language. Because of this we took try to teach them in Magar language. Now we have only one book. For Primary level one has to teach in class 4/5. Can Magar language compete in teaching of Nepali language while teaching Magar language this way?
It is the same to speak and learn Nepali or Magar language. Magar language feels difficult, and there is first the language English. That also cannot be learnt by all. That is only know by educated one. But one can use [Magar] in the village.

There are only a few children who study in school in our Magar village. Again educated don't speak in Magar language. They abandoned to speak. The educated people go to the city so they give up custom of Magar. The talk of giving up Magar custom is done by educated Magar and little educated Magar also distort Magar culture. Do you think it is so or not?
They have already spoiled all as nobody used to speak other than Magar here. It would be difficult to speak with a Nepali speaker. They think Nepali language is important so they began to speak. So they have been giving up speaking Magar language. Nepali is the language of Chettri and Bahun. That is not ours (Magar). Newari and Maithali language have been initiated from the government, but our teachers have not done to initiate Magar language. Nobody cares for it.

In your opinion, is it necessary to promote or develop our language?
Magar language should be promoted.

Our language is richer than Sanskrit or Nepali. For example wearing means to wear shoe, cap, watch, jewellery in Nepali. There is difference in wearing cap, watch and shoes in Magar language, so Magar language is richer than Nepali language. Nobody knows, it due to lack of people who can give introduction of it and what should we do to say Magar language is richer than other by giving its introduction. In your opinion?
If we want to develop Magar language, we should not teach our children Nepali. We have to teach Magar language at first. We have to teach them speaking Magar language and alphabetic. We have to teach learning and reading language from the very beginning. For example they are all Magar in Gulmi Bharsay hills. They don't know Magar language, nobody speaks Magar but they are educated. They are highly educated and they are rich too. They do not speak Magar language.
Section 11
No, grandfather are people of this belt educated because they speak Magar language age?
What it is? I don't know. Nobody is educated through Magar language. Now all people are educated from the beginning.

They have schools from Gorlachali, the school was opened by the army. The teachers work military and students work also later joined in at he army. Gatha also used to take students from the school. So that they had become soldiers and earned money. they might have forgotten the language in the army. They get promotion, earn money and get educated because they didn't speak Magar language.
They might have become rich because they had got promotion and brought money from foreign. They have become educated by learning Nepali language in the beginning. They also might have got education by giving up Magar language.

Where people are taken in case of illness?
Nowadays people who can afford will get well and those who can't will die. If small medical or herbal could cure they would live otherwise they would die.

This mission hospital (UMN) has come here. How did this mission hospital come here?
Which mission hospital came at time Durga Bahadur Rana of Tadi was district chairman. He told that one medical hospital and a dispensary should come here. He then went to Bhusal Hill, Palpa and talked about it. Then there was a Japanese clerk who was also director had come. First he came to Tandhi and talked. There was a master who was B.A. He came here in 2024. He was of this school. His house is plain Harkpur. This house is East Mungapur. He had come to Harkpur in the landless plan. Then we invited him here. His name was Humnath Tiwari. At that time we were four teachers. He was asked to write an application. That was a Hawaldar who also signed and sent it. This application was sent with director, Yrmanura. He was also taken to Busal Hill. They also talked. Our lady came taking temporary appointment. She came and inspected and said OK for this place. She agreed and went. The land was given in Tandhi. She ran for a while keeping medicine. There came to our Bojra. She also came to give BCT injection.
After giving injection she was given food. She came to this Chautara and sat the whole day and she liked this place very much. She said they would stay there. Then she came and stayed there. We made a house later on. What should they do, she asked. We told her that you were a foreigner who we had no permission to sell it to her. We asked her to get permission from anyone of our society. Then she was given the land. It is said that there was a house, our grandfathers stayed here. Later our fathers were separated. Then we went there. Again we turned and stayed here. We shifted here our present residence in 2011 B.S. And it was vacant. We registered this place in the name of school. They came to stay in this place of school's property. This house was built in 2026 B.S. From 2026 B.S. many patients began to come and also having treatment. There would be facility too. In 2040 B.S. they came to be known as Christians. Some clever man complained against them at district office. And district office did not allow them to be there. Now if there is a serious illness, people will die due to lack of treatment.
Section 12
As far as you know the people what types of disease people do have most?
They suffered from fever, Asthma, Typhoid, Diarrhoea. Women mostly died while giving birth. Some will die not able to give a birth.

Do you find any difference in growing crops now and before?
A little bit. In our village JTA comes but doesn't give information about farming. We learned mostly from going outside.

Do you grow more food, now or before?
Before we had more productions.

What is the reason?
Those days soil was good and it was not drowned by water. Now water drains soil regularly. That's why it happens.

If in this way soil begins to drown then what will happen after 100 or 200 years?

Please tell me your good experience in your life?
I don't know.

Maybe you had enjoyed in your youth with a girl when you went to someone's wedding? Or you had enjoyed taking training somewhere?
I didn't take any training. In war there was not a happy moment. In our village I didn't like to go to rodi (Gurung fold dance) also. My parents died when I was small. I was always busy with work. So I didn't know good things in my life.

What about your worst moment, did you experience in your life?
In 2022 all village burnt in fire. My children were all small. All my property had burnt in the fire. That time on my body there were one cap, bhoto (waistcoat) and half pant. When I returned in pension I didn't leave my local made clothes. All finished in one minute. That year I didn't grow anything in the field. I had my brothers also. There were no woods and khar (thatch) to make a house. We went to live in a gotha (livestock shed). It was not possible always to live there. We later made a small hut, then all divided the property. In 2023 we had suffered from anikaal (scarcity/famine), money had also decreased.

Your parents died when you were small?

Where from did your grandparents come here?
From Raikot.

From how many generations have you been living here?
Many generations.

Then you don't know about rising people?
Section 13
In this place people come from different place or they also went to outside?
Pulami came from Satikot. Palahi came from Rising. Sakh came from 'Darduwa'. And Ale came form 'Majha Danrda'. Ramjali came from Batase. We came from Raikot. I don't know about other who came before us.

Do you ask other family members to buy and sell land and cattle or you do it by yourselves?
All these things are the task of the main member of the family.

And if it is personal belonging?
In that case we have to ask that person whose belonging is that.

If a family member has money and you would like to buy a buffalo, do you have to ask to that member?
Yes, we ask him if we are depending on that particular member otherwise any member can do it.

In Bhat, Brahmin and Chettri's family the main member has much respect where as in Magar's family female get more respect than others, do you agree with it or not?
Yes, I do agree that Magar females get more respect in their family than Chettri, Brahmins society. They are maintaining all their daily life, if they work hard for their family they must get respect too. In some couples the wife is cleverer than the husband, in that case the wife has to maintain her family.

In this village if man has 50-60 thousand rupees in what sort of duties does he spends his money?
50/60 thousand rupees are a lot for us and we can't give it to others. Those who got this much money they buy land. There is no way to open factories in the village. We don't have the road facility. The Government is also telling us that the development is not of ministers it is of the public. No one came to the hill areas only they came up to the plain area. People who live in the plain areas they have facilities of electricity, transport, markets, they can get everything easily. Here we are not getting any facility. We can't get anything that's why we are backward.

What is the main income source of people who lives here?
It is the agriculture and it is not enough for them. Other income sources are …

Do they knit nanglo (flat basket for cleaning grain), dualo (basket) etc?
Most of the Magar's weave these only short listed Magar's do this work.

Do you think that they don't do this because they don't know how to weak or lack of changes?
It may be like that the places where they get changes they do this work such as people from Hattigainda.

Is there any difference between old business and a business of now?