photo of person from Nepal Sindhulpalchok
Nepal glossary

Jay Singh

(NEPAL 13)






Buddhist, Tamang caste








Section 1
What is your name?
My name is Jay Singh Tamang.

How old are you?
I am 55 years old.

What do you do, your profession?
I do farming.

Which religion do you follow?
I follow Buddhism.

Do you know the saying or advice of Buddha?
No, I don't know.

How many members do you have in your family?
There are seven.

Who are they?
I have two wives, three sons, one daughter-in-law and myself altogether seven.

How old are your wives?
One is 52 years and the other is as old as me about 55 years old. The eldest son is 22, second one 19 and the youngest 17 years old. The daughter-in-law is 20. And I also have a 3-month-old granddaughter.

Do you have your parents?

At what age did they die?
My father died at 77 and the mother was 75 when she died.

Did you meet your grandfather and grandmother?
No, I didn't.

How many children were born in your own family?
There were altogether 10.
Section 2
How many are still living out of those 10?
There are only three left. Out of 10, seven of them died.

At what age did those seven die?
I don't know in which year, but they all died when they were around 4 years old.

Did they die of any disease?
Something like that. They died of sukute rog (?).

So you didn't get the modern medicine, injections and treatment?
Yes, something like that.

Where is your house, your address?
My house is in Ward No.8 in the lower Mazuwa, Ichown Gaun Bikash Samiti (Village Development Committee).

When and from where did your forefathers came from to settle here?
Before our family was not seen around here, my great grandfather used to come through here to graze the cattle. As he was regularly passing through this place he happened to fall in love with a young girl. So instead of him marrying the girl, she kept him here. So after that the uncles gave them some land in this lower Mazuwa area and kept them here. Now it's the seventh generations and there are about twelve houses.

What kind of Tamang are you?
I am Ghlan Tamang.

Do you know where is your forefathers actual house?
Golfu (Mahankal Gaun Bikash Samiti).

What festivals do you celebrate?
We celebrate the Maghe Sankranti, Chaite Dasain, Srawan Sankranti, the Dasain and Tihar.

When someone dies what do the Tamangs do?
In such cases we bring the Lama (Buddhist priest) to perform the rites. Then within one month we have a rite called Newar then another one called Ghewa (funeral rites) within 3-4 months.

How is the Ghewa performed?
We bring the Lama and play dhyangro (big drum). We have to spend a lot of money.

How much do you spend?
About 2000-3000 rupees and 10-12 muri of crops. Altogether, we have to spend about 25,000 rupees.

How many days is the Ghewa?
It is done for 3 days.
Section 3
Is it the same for all the dead?
It is 3 days for the adults and one day for the children.

How much do you spend for the children's Ghewa?
We spend about 5,000 rupees.

How is your marriage fixed and performed?
Like the parbates (those belonging to the mountains), the girlís family do not look for the son-in-law. We have to search for the girls when our son is old and eligible. When the girl is found we have to take meat and rakshi (alcohol) and make syalkar (special food for marriage ceremony). We have to take the syalkar again when the marriage has to be fixed. On the day of the marriage we go and bring the bride carrying, we play the damfu (tambourine) and sing songs. Then we perform the marriage ceremony when the bride is brought home.

How much approximately do you spend for a son's marriage?
Including the clothes and food around 15,000 rupees.

And how much for a daughter's marriage?
Around 5,000 rupees for a daughter's marriage.

At what age do the boys and girls marry these days?
Before, the Tamangs used to get married when they were grown ups. But these days they are marrying early, at the age of 13-14 years. I think this is going on since 9-10 years ago.

So 9-10 years ago they used to marry at the age of 20-22 years, what is the reason behind the 13-14 years old boys and girls getting married?
The reason behind is, there were lots of girls around in those days, but these days, there are bad things going on, since the girls have been taken abroad these young marriages are done.

Did you go to any school to study?
No, I did not go to school at all.

Do you know how to read and write?
I can write a little.

Where did you learn to write?
When I was 12-13 years old, I had thought of doing something so that my name will be remembered long after I am gone, but there was no school. My mother told me to be a farmer and the father suggested that I could make a living by carrying goods. But I used to think that if I wanted I can go anywhere and do anything but spend my life like malei gai (piebald cattle) and jhule gai (drowsy cattle). Then we started to have arguments in our house. But my father couldn't do anything, so he made me marry at the age of 14 years. But still I didn't agree. Since my father couldn't do anything, I went to the famous pundit (priest) Murali Buda in Mahankal, asked for Rs.40, I walked away, and after many days of walking I reached a place called Biratnagar. Then I was small and thin, so I could not find work. I had spent all the money during my travel and I had to survive on just drinking water for 5 days from which I couldn't see or hear anything. I thought I would die. So after many days of walking I arrived on the road to Biratnagar, there a man on the bullock cart asked me who and where I was from and why was I walking there. I told him that I was looking for a job. He asked me if I could use plough the fields in 10 rupees a month? I told him I could but at Rs.15 per month and so we agreed. I was earning 50 paisa a day.
After 3 months the work was finished and with Rs.50 in hand I went to Biratnagar and joined in the jute mill. I worked in the mill but didn't have a place to sleep. I met and old man named Jasbahadur Rai while I was searching for a place to stay, and he asked me where I was sleeping, and I told him I am sleeping outside since I didn't have a place. He offered me a place to stay. At that time I was earning Rs.12 a week and we used to get six sher of rice from the jute mill. He had two small daughters; I used to drop them at the school and later picked them up and worked in the mill for 8 hours a day. Those two girls taught me to read a little and after that Jash the old man gave me one big book called Barnamal. He gave me a room to sleep, he laughingly threatened me that I must read always even during the night, he wouldn't sleep but listen to me read. I believed him so I use to study all night, that's how I learnt 12 letters, and numerical up to 100. When I returned home after 2 years, my father was very surprised to see me and my ability to read and write.
I still owed that Rs 40. He asked me if I had brought any money, I told him that I had Rs.250, from that I paid my due Rs.40 and had Rs. 200 remaining. He asked me what else I could do? Though I could read just 12 letters I told him I knew everything and could write everything though I couldn't write a word. After that my father went around the village and boasted that his youngest son was a loafer so he gave Rs.40 and sent the boy away and now he's become more learned than the Brahmins and came back. And those days there wasn't anyone who could read. Everybody came to me to write their letters so with lot of practice I became quite good. I even worked as a tax collector in the Panchayater (previous political regime).
In the year 2025 BS, we started a small school in Pathing, there were half the number of doors installed and the walls were 2-3 feet high but the other members sold them and spent everything. The school was in a mess. Again, the villagers made a hut for the school but there was no teacher so I asked the children to bring a copy each and I started to teach. In the year BS. 2043 our ward president was Ruber Tamang, at that time 3 employees of ActionAid came here and they were sleeping in the sleeping bags. Then Ganesh Lama asked what the most needed thing was in our village? But Ruber Lama did not understand the question and asked the others to look for someone who would understand. Then Jaysingh came and said that there were three men sleeping in the bags and asking questions and took me along. So when those men asked me what was needed in this village, I told them that we needed a school. I took out the mat and we all sat on the ground and I proposed that I would build the school if they provided the zinc sheets. They agreed to give but asked us to dig the foundation. In the 15th of Paus we started digging the foundation and the school was completed on the 12th of Baisakh.
When the school was completed I thought I was free but they asked me to look for land to build an office building. I didn't know where to look, I showed them the land near the jungle but they said no, so they bought the land on the upper part of Samdhi tol (ward) and paid Rs.300. Then they left me in charge to dig the foundation, but I wasn't yet employed. They were working in Golfu also and asked me to visit there too, and I went there also. I even went to Bulbale in search of labourers and to bring stones. I looked for the trees and bought one for Rs.1400 and the other for Rs.600 and bought two lapsi (Chinese plum) trees for Rs.1800. So somehow I started the work in two places. I had to manage everywhere. On the 18th of Aashaadh the office was built, and I stayed there with the fire on in Srawan also and at last Dhruba karki, the overseer sent me Rs 1000. And the employees started to stay here from Paus.
Section 5
How many in your family can read and write?
In my house there is myself, my youngest son just passed class 7 and now promoted to class 8, and the second son and daughter-in-law.

Where did they study?
They learnt from the adult education programme under the same office. They can even write letters and sign. So they do not need the thumb prints.

What differences do you find between the literate and illiterates?
The literate are much better off. The illiterates have difficulties, if they receive a letter they have to look for someone who can read, and ask others to write for them. If you cannot write it is quite difficult to dictate a letter, so if you can write you don't have to ask anyone. Even after the office building was constructed I didn't know it was called the ActionAid, it wasn't even mentioned in the letters, they didn't use the letter pads. The adult education programme was held in my ward the first time and the second time also. So there are only 5-6 people in my village who cannot read or write.

Now the people can read and write, what changes do you find in their behaviour?
Before they were of 1 hand but now they are 10 hands talk. In the Pathing-danda almost half the people can read and write from this adult education programme. The children go to Pathing school up to 4-5 classes. From class 6 onwards they attend the school in Gyalthum.

Are the people getting jobs after they are educated?
They are not so good to get the jobs but they are able to live with it.

Have any of the educated villagers gone away to get jobs?
They are not that highly educated. My youngest son is going to class 8 this year and I want him to pass SLC (Secondary Level Certificate). He hasn't failed in any class from 1 up to class 7.

What do you want your son to be after he passes SLC?
I hope he will be a teacher after school or at least make him pass IA, so that he doesn't have to live on farming or carrying goods.

What kind of diseases do the villagers suffer from?
Before they used to get smallpox, measles and dysentery. But now the smallpox has been eradicated since people are vaccinated every month. Measles is also almost eradicated. Sukuti rog sukenash... is also gone. In those days, people were not educated so they didn't understand many things, so now with the use of vaccination most of the diseases are controlled.
Section 6
What was the mortality rate 40 years ago and what was the percentage of mortality among children?
I am not really sure, but I think 2-3 of them died. In my case also only three of my children survived out of 10. It was the same with everybody. If they had 7-10 children only 1 or 2 of them survived. Nowadays children do not die that way. I think it is due to the vaccination the children are surviving.

So now, what kind of diseases do the children of village suffer from?
Now there are mostly diarrhoea and vomiting and sometimes heart pains.

In what conditions do the people die the most?
Mostly people die during Chaitra and Srawan. Then they die of vomiting, diarrhoea and heart pain. In that time even the medicine have no effect.

When the people are sick where do they go for medicine?
They go to the hospital in Chanaute. I try to persuade the people not to use local witch doctors like Dhami and Jhankri (traditional healers). When they use the Dhamis they have to sacrifice chicken and goats, it costs a least Rs 100 and on top of that another 400-500 Rs is spent, so they spent at least Rs. 1500-1600 just like that. But if they go to the hospital, they spend Rs. 20-50 at the most. Now the people have realised the importance of hospital and started to visit the hospital and take the modern medicines.

Since you are a Jhankri yourself, how do you treat your patients?
I would talk to them into going to the hospital. I'd read their future (as a fortune teller) if requested, but I am against the sacrificing of chickens and goats.

How do you find out the disease by just reading in his palm?
We have a procedure of finding such things by asking one or the other and then the gods and the Shiva Bhume. So when you ask and get an even number of rice three times to each of them and that way its possible to come to conclusion who is the main culprit.

How do you know what is happening when you get an even or odd number of rice?
It is like this, if you suspect that itís the goddess effect and throw the rice three times and if the number is even then it is confirmed. But if it is even two times and odd one time then it is wrong. So if it comes even all three times then you are sure that it is the goddess effect. Again when we throw the rice three times asking her if we can fulfil her wishes so that her effect goes away, and we get even number of rice all three times then the patient gets better. That is our experience.
Section 7
After you know which god, goddess and Shiva Bhume has the effect on the patient how do you treat them?
If the effect is very big then the sacrifice of chicken is a must. But if itís just minor gods, some do not like sacrifices, so we just have to offer fruits, milk and pray - that may release the patient from the effects.

You pray to the gods, that's one way but what kinds of herbs do you use for the treatment?
If it is fever then we use goat meat, oil and rayo (type of vegetable) which cools his inner body. We also give the herbs to eat which treats them also.

What kind of herbs do you use?
For fever, we use two kinds of herbs called titepati, in the high attitude we have small kind of titepati we call the chinja (in Tamang language), we make them eat it. And for our own kind (caste) we use cow's gall which also helps.

How do you prepare titepati so that patients can eat it?
We crush and squeeze it and make the patient drink about a glass of the juice. Some get better by one glass and some need 2-3 glasses to get well.

And what other medicines do you use for other sickness?
We treat the cuts by the grass called tinai, that is the old way but now people go to the hospital these days. When we treat the cuts we crush the tinai and make the paste which we apply on the cut and keep it there as long as the cut is healed, the paste keeps the cut parts together. If it is rash, we use the yeast.

How do you treat typhoid?
We use the same medicine for fever. Typhoid is like the fever.

What do you use for stomach ache?
For dysentery we use the bark of the tree of totila flower. We crush the bark and add water then put it in a cloth and take out the juice only by wrenching the mixture. The patient has to drink the juice. Some get better at once and some have to drink more of that juice.

How do you treat the gastritis?
We cannot treat the gastritis, no matter what medicine we use we just cannot make them better. It cannot be treated even in the hospital.

What do you do in case a women cannot give birth to a child?
I was always called for in such cases. I can find out the position of the baby by feeling and squeezing the stomach. Once my second wife was also pregnant and when the delivery time came she found out that the baby was dead, because the baby was not moving at all for three days, so she was afraid she might die too. After she came home she had the labour pains but the dead baby could not come out. In Bhutan I had seen a doctor treating the same kind of case and I still remembered what he had done. I leaned back and put my wife between my legs and squeezed her stomach by my knees, the dead baby was really very big but finally it came out. Then there was another case, but this time it was a goat. This goat also could not deliver the kid and was in a very bad condition. I let it go away, it ran all over and went up but it still could not deliver, and I found out that it can deliver only if the head and the forelegs come out together. But in this case, only the head of the kid had come out but the legs were still inside and it was about to die. So I got hold of her and squeezed her stomach by my hand and pushed the kid out, thus I learned to deliver the kid also.
Section 8
Do you use herbs in such cases also?
No, I do not.

How do you treat the cases of diarrhoea?
What I heard from father was the diarrhoea was the urine remaining in the body, but I have never treated such cases. Instead of using the local medicines we send such cases to the hospital.

How do you treat the patients who shiver and mutter?
Shivering is the devil's effect so we use the siyo (light rice) and fry the khatte (?) and make the offering so that the devil leaves the patient alone. In this way some get better and some do not.

How many patients of such cases have you treated until now?
Maybe 40-50 cases.

How and from whom did you learn this Dhami procedure?
My second brother went abroad and learnt some Dhami lessons, he used to go around the village and I had to accompany him. So I learnt from what he did and started practising myself, but did not spent a lot of money. I try to minimise the cost.

What other treatments can you do with the Jhankri system?
I do not use medicines but I use the technique of blowing away of the devilís effects. I know mantra in Parbate (Nepali) language, whenever I have to say mantra-tantra I use Nepali language.

When you use the mantra how many patients can you make well?
About 90% get better only the 10% do not get well. Actually my name in the Chino is Jasbahadur, but later the villagers said since I was working against the devil and making the patients well, I should be called Jay Singh, so the name is still there. So I use the name Jaysingh in my citizenship and in other paper works.

How many months can you live from your land?
We can live for a year, it is enough but we cannot sell.

What do you plant to have enough for a year?
We have rice, maize and millet, actually we have more than enough, but we Tamangs have too much expenditure. We use rice for guests and in festivals, we make rakshi out of millet and make jard (alcohol) out of corn. If we live like Chettri and Brahman, my rice and millet is enough for us to live on for a year, so we could have saved the corn. These days we still grow about 10-12 muri of rice, millet and corn each.
Section 9
What is the difference in the yield of the crops from now and before?
About 40-45 years ago, we didn't know the better way of planting crops, so we had to starve from Falgun to Chaitra, we had to get the food from the sahus (money lenders). But now we have learnt from this office the importance of organic manuring which has improved the yield so now it is enough for us for a year.

What kind of fertiliser do you use?
We use organic manure and chemical fertilisers. We use about 3-4 pathi in the rice field. We do not use it for wheat. And for others we use our own cattle's organic manors.

What kinds of crops do you plant?
We grow yellow and white corn, as for the rice there is thanbote and we used to have the one called hile marshi. Now we all get the supply of crops from the office of ActionAid, we get the wheat called Annapurna which grow more and gives better yield of 2 muri from the land from where we used to get only 1 muri. We have also tried the rice this year.
In the old days, the poor had to go and ask for rice from the wealthy, if they had taken 8 pathi the next year they had to give back 10 pathi. If they had taken money the interest rate was 5 pathi for hundred and they had to work for a day for the rich. Now the office has made a group in our ward and we collect 1 pathi of crop a year and Rs. 5 every month, we already have a Rs.4962 in the Melamchi Bank. Rs. 100-200 we have in the village itself. We do not have to go to the rich for loan; we have 4 muri 10 pathi of crop so that the needy can use it. So now the poorest are coming up, their living standard is improving. The poor do not go to the rich for loans nowadays, if the poor go and beg the rich then they think they are high above. But now the poor can also work for themselves they don't have to taken loans from the rich, so there is no such thing like rich and poor now. With the help of this office now we have a group, in this group the rich and the poor both have to work and store, and whoever needs use from the store, so the life has become easy for all of us.

From where did you get the loans before?
Sometimes we had to go to Mahakal, there were one or two rich men in this village, but now we do not have to go anywhere.

What was the interest rate in those days?
Before it was 10 pathi for a hundred and later it was 5 pathi, we could give rice, corn, millet anything. Since 2-3 years age it is only 3 pathi per hundred. But now that system is also gone. Now people give money at the interest rate of 20% and some even take 30%.
Section 10
What kinds of livestock do you raise?
I used to raise buffalo but now I have only cattle. I have one ox (developed) given to me by the office. We already have 6-7 cattle from it, but not in my barn, because the bigger one could not make it and the small one is too young. So if the young ones are ready, I hope to get more cattle from them too.

In business what difference is there from before and now?
As far as I remember, the crops were 50 paisa per pathi but every time it has been increasing and now it is Rs. 20 per pathi. The ghee was 25 paisa for a pathi and now it is Rs. 50 per pathi. We used to get ox for 15-16 rupees, and a pair of oxen for Rs. 30-32. Now it cost Rs. 200 for an ox and Rs. 4000 for a pair. The milking buffalo was Rs. 120-140 and now it costs Rs. 19000-11,000. Everything is getting expensive now. The clothes are expensive too. Whatever we get we ask for more so we could not ask others for cheap, so it is equal vice-versa. I bought and sold a cock for 3-4 rupees and now the same size of cock costs Rs. 200. It used to cost 50-60 rupees for a goat of 3-4 dharni and now it is Rs. 1000 for a 4 dharni goat. It was 35-40 years ago.

Which animal do you like the most?
I like the cow, you can take it anywhere, graze them anywhere and they are pure. Then I like the goat. I also like the buffalo but our place, it is quite difficult to raise them, we do not have the grazing ground that's why I cannot raise them.

What is the condition of forest in your village area?
There are lots of things I have [done] for the forest. I was 20-22 years old and I was ploughing my field, I looked for a stick to hit my ox and I went to the other hillside but I could not even find one stick. The plants were growing but the grass cutters cut everything so the plants didn't have the chance to grow big. Then the people used to cut the forest and keep the bed of millet. There was a wise old man named Lato Budo, I was feeling very bad about the forest so I went and talked to him. I told him that we should stop cutting down the trees in the forest to keep the bed for the millet but he scolded me back. He said if we cannot keep the bed for millet in the deforested are what can we live on. But I still didn't agree, I stopped the people from keeping the bed for millet in the forest and asked them to keep them in their fields itself. But still the people kept on cutting the grass and the trees along with it, so I gathered all the villagers and passed the resolution and told them that if anyone was seen cutting the grass along with the saplings they will be fined. Only then people stopped cutting the grass and saplings, and finally the trees could grow big. So now we have quite a dense forest everywhere. But again some people from Mahakal came to steal in the moonlit night. I asked the villagers to volunteer, I asked if only one of them can accompany me so that I could catch those thieves. But the villagers were afraid of the men from Mahankal.
Finally my brotherís son Topten volunteered to accompany me, but he said he would just come along and I should do the talking. So we went to the Chanauto Pradhan Pancha's house and told him that his villagers are ruining our forest. But he said that he was not responsible and he came up with an idea, that we should let the people go who are carrying sickle and the bamboo baskets, but if they come with khukuri (curved knife carried by the Nepali ) and axe then we can take their khukuri and axes. Then he gave us 10 paisa and told us to buy something to eat. We went to the Dalle's hut, the master's son and ate a lot of goat meat. Then I came walking along the hills of Mahankal shouting and even went in the houses and told them what the pradhan pancha (village mayor) had said, from that day on the stealing has stopped. The forest had the chance to grow, so now you can see that the forest has grown everywhere.
Section 11
What are the rules you have made for the preservation of the forest?
In the rules, we have that people cannot cut saplings and branches they can only collect the dried leaves or broken branches, fern and grasses. People cut 1-2 trees to build their houses. Last time in Mahankal a man named Man Bahadur Sarki's house was burnt down and came to the office for help. The officers there told him that it was not their forest but it belonged to the villagers and asked him to see Jaysingh. So this Sarki came to see me, since he didn't have a house, he didn't even have clothes or anything so he came wrapped up in a sheet and paid respect to me with a bottle of rakshi and goat meat. I told him that I alone cannot decide, I have to have a group meeting. I told him that I was going to collect money for my group tomorrow and others will be there too and I could ask them there and I asked him to come there too, but he didn't show up. So we thought maybe he went to somebody else and does not need us anymore but someday later he showed up with a friend. Then he said that it was up to me to give him big or small trees but not to give him the uttish tree (sal) because the termites can eat it. I told my nephew to give the Sarki a chilaune tree a size of 2 -13 enough to build a house.
Then again the Bangaredi's started cutting the trees near the banyan tree, our border is right over there. To stop that we had to stand guard one by one and we brought the saplings from the nursery of Mahankal and planted them in our gardens. Then our Topten and Nakkale took the nursery training and now the two of them run a nursery. We dug the ground in Falgun and Chaitra and planted in the Aashaadh and now we have all kinds of pine trees. After the tree plantation from the nursery no-one could enter the forest and cut the trees, then we decided that they can also cut grass and collect the dried leaves and branches and now we have a very good forest.

Do you find any difference in the spring water when there was no forest and now you have the forest?
Before the mill near my house used to stop in the month of Kaarttik because the spring would stop, but now it is still working till Paus. Before there was a small stream near my house but we also had to use the water from the big river to irrigate our fields, we were not able to plant even in Aashaadh, there was so little water that before reaching the fields it would dry up in the canal itself. Now the rivers are full of water so we can sow our crops even in Jyestha.

What provisions do you have for drinking water?
We applied for it in the Panchayat Regime. We requested many times to our Pradhan Pancha, we even applied in the Ministry, but it was useless. After the project office was established we requested them and we should be the first ward to get the drinking water, so now we have the water supply to each and every house. Before when there was heavy rain and the river ran high we had to drink the muddy water that also we had to walk for half an hour and get it from the other river. So compared to that it is very good and comfortable for us now.
Section 12
Now that the people save time because of the water supply programme how do they utilise that time, is there any change?
In that extra time people can collect the grasses and make more manure/compost. Before we had to starve from Chaitra but now we have more manure so the yield is good too. People have more time to cultivate the land and they can earn more. So with the good supply of drinking water more people have enough to eat.

Where do you bring the materials to make the manure or compost?
From our own forest.

How different is it to prepare compost from the time when you didn't have forest and now that you have the forest?
It is very different. Before we prepared the compost in Srawan, Bhadra and Asoj in 3 months only and now any time of the year it doesn't matter. Winter and summer we make the compost all the times. We make 3 times more compost then we used to about 40 years back. It is all because of the forest.

With more fallen leaves and more compost how much is the increment in the yield or production of crops?
It has doubled compared to before.

What system of parma arma (communal labour) do you have in your village when working?
System of parma is in farming when the family cannot manage all the work we pay others to do the job. In other places the wages are about Rs. 50 but in our village we give only Rs. 20, or 1 pathi of food grain. If you have work but the others don't then we can pay back the parma later also. Like we can finish our work and sometimes when they need. I go and work for them.

How do you pay the wages to a man and a women?
They are equally paid, in our village it is seen from before.

What do the children do in your house?
We have to take care of them till they are 2-3 years old. Then they look after the goats when they are 3-4 years old, some go to school.

What is the system of sending the children to school in your village?
People are reluctant to send their children to school, they always say the children have to graze the goats or cut the grass for the animals, that is why there are very few students. I have 3 sons, the eldest one keeps and raises the cattle, the second one is farming and the third one goes to school. But the others, even if they have 3-4 children do not want to send them to school. They say that I have 2 wives, 3 sons and 1 daughter-in-law so I have enough leisure time and I can afford to send my son to school but that Nasir has 22 family members and how come he doesn't have enough leisure time? This is the difference between who understands and who doesn't.
Section 13
Do the people from this village go away to work in the state services?
There are some. Some of them are in the Indian army and some are working in the roadside, some are labourers, they all go away and do odd jobs.

How much do they earn from abroad?
The clever ones earn and bring lot of money but the others they earn and spend and come back empty.

Do the females also go away?
They seldom go, the husband and wife go together.

How much do the women earn and bring?
The husband and wife together must be earning a lot.

How do these people spend all the money?
Some buy cattle, some buy lands and some build new houses. If they have some more they save. Some even give loans to others.

What changes do you find in people's behaviour between the people of 40 years ago and now?
Comparatively, when you walk around the village you see that the people now are in heaven. That is because, in those days, our mother had difficulty feeding us dhinkdo two times a day, we had to starve all the time, but these days people have enough to have four meals a day; they don't even have to work. I married three times, and all the times I wore fenga (cloth made from aloe) and black daura (Nepali menís shirt) of jean. We didn't know about pants. Only 1 or 2 Chettri and Brahmans used to wear pants, the Tamangs didn't we just wore fenga and loin clothes and a belt. And now even in Aashaadh people are wearing pants. No one is walking around without shoes now. In those days, our parents had very difficult times just to feed us let alone the tea and snacks.

How did these things happen then?
Now the people know many ways to earn money. In the old days the most one could get was 10-15 bhari of corn, if one got 20 bhari of corn he was considered rich. Now I get 40-50 bhari of corn. Life was hard in the olden days, we had to go to the high mountains, cut trees make beams and take them to Kathmandu to sell. Now the people don't have to do such hard work, they don't leave any place barren so they earn more and their life has become comfortable.

If you have any lawsuit in your village to whom do you go for justice?
In those days, we went to the Talukdar (tax collector). Then in the Panchayat era there were village members and presidents where we could consult for law and justice. If the case was not satisfactory we would go to the Pradhan Panch. These days also, if possible we go to the wise and learned old men of the village and compromise. If the case is difficult then we go to the president of the Gaun Bikash Samiti, if the case cannot be dealt then we go to the district administration. Small arguments are dealt within the village, but the fights for land are taken to the district office. When both the parties are not satisfied we send them to the district.
Section 14
If you have to settle the lawsuit in your village whom do the villagers go to?
I used to move around the village from my childhood, so for sometime I worked as a Talukdar also. Then I was a member too. So people call me if somebody is getting married or someone wants to separate and live by oneself or if there are fights and arguments I am called to settle things, to make them understand.

How do you settle all those cases?
I call both the parties together and give them each a chance to say their part of the story. Then I can find out who is right and who is wrong. So whoever is the wrong party I have to advise them. I tell them the importance of brotherhood, and point out his wrong doings, tell them that we have to live in harmony. Then if they both agree the fight is settled.

Which political system do you prefer, the old or the new one?
I prefer the political system of today to the Panchayati system. Because in the Panchayati system all the members and presidents were after money, even the Pradhan Pancha was like that. Then we go to the district, it was the same story again. Anyhow they wanted to harass and get money out of the weak and the meek. These days it is not that bad. In the Panchayat era if a village was given 10 lakh rupees for development the ministry would keep 5 lakh rupees; the minister kept that money and when the remaining 5 lakh rupees arrived in the district they would steal half of that money. So there remained only 250 thousand rupees, that is why the road could not be constructed. Now whatever amount is collected by the government all is available for the builders.

Between before and now what difference do you find in working with the district administrative offices?
In the district if you have any case of lawsuit they want their share, they ask for certain amount. They want money for writing and speaking and it is different or more for those who cannot say or write. The employees there work according to the customers. If they take Rs. 200 from the ones they don't know, they take Rs. 40 only from their friends or know people. Till now I haven't used a lawyer, I have done everything by myself. If something has to be written I use the old and familiar bahidars who write for a few rupees.

People come to you to settle the disputes but if you find it difficult to settle the matters whom do you go to?
If I cannot do it by myself, I call the villagers and explain the case and ask for their advice. If it is the mistake of the other, we scold them and if it is my own fault then I scold myself, the villagers settle disputes. We have to help each other and the disputes are settled easily.

Which is the day when you've really suffered?
I really felt bad once, we used to have election for the post of Pradhan Pancha, in which one would win naturally by luck or the way he convinced the people. So the loser always blamed me that due to my bad play he had lost the election. Then I was a member also. And one day, an eight-year-old cow of the other ward died and the loser gathered all my enemies and blamed me for the death of the cow. The enemies even poked the eyes of the dead cow. They even brought an investigator team from the district. The team found other strong cows there and investigated the case. They then submitted the report saying that if it was Jaysingh who killed the old cow why didn't he kill the strong ones? And when they asked the owner the age of the cow, they were told that it was 8 years old the investigator didn't believe that I could do such a thing and gave the report that I was not guilty. Then they prepared the paper and we compromised.
Then again there was a big fight among his son-in-law and his eldest son and the son took away all the pots and pans given to his sister, that time also he put up a dacoity (banditry) case against me. At that time I had my friends in the Mahankal and I went there to consult with them. Afterwards the police came with chains to arrest me, but then I ran away and hid myself. After the police had left, I came out of my hiding and found a message saying that I should make the son return the pots and pans taken to Golfu and come to Chautara to sign the compromise paper so I went to Golfu and talked to the son, I talked him into returning his sister's belongings and to sign the paper and take the belongings the day after. We were walking together and when we reached the forest he asked me to wait a little further and he would come after a while, I waited for a long time but he didn't show up, so I didn't go to Golfu, the enemies territory, the next day. Then again came the warrant for me the dacoit from the district. I thought that there were too many enemies in this village and ran away and reached Jammu Kashmir. Then the people of Golfu again applied for a lawsuit against all of us. The lawyer was hired to fight the case and all the expenses I had to bear. In the end I won the case and the man who lost the case left this village and now living in that tar over there.
Section 15
Which is the happiest moment of your life?
After I won the case my life has been happy ever since. I am very happy during the festival of Dashain and Tihar every year and the other times also I am happy.

What do you wish to do in your remaining days of your life?
I wanted to do lots of things; I wanted to build a school it has been built, I think I have very little to do. I want to preserve the forest and make them even bigger. And I want my people to keep on saving for the community whatever amount of money is there.

How do you wish your children should be?
I want them to be smart but not dull, obedient, honest and hard working people.

Do you have any other things to say?
Before we had to go high up in the mountains to cut grass and firewood and now since the office has been established we have dale grass on the side of the fields so that we don't have to go to the forest from the month of Mansir to Jyestha for the grass. We planted lime, lemon and walnut. I have three walnut trees and I also have the cardamoms, and this time it bore some fruits. I am thinking of separating the cardamom plant and make more out of one plant. That's all.

Thank you for the co-operation.