photo of person from Nepal Sindhulpalchok
Nepal glossary








Gautam Buddha, Tamang caste




Ichok VDC, Sindhupalchok





Section 1
May I know your name please?
My name is Mani Lama Tamang. Ichok Ga. Bi. Sa (Village Development Committee) Ward No-9, Sursing.

How old are you?
I am 23 years old.

Are you married?
Yes. It's been one year.

At what age did you get married?
When I was 22.

How many family members are in your family?
I have eight members.

Who are they?
My parents, two brothers, two sisters, my wife and myself.

How old are your parents?
My father is 48 years old, my mother is 50 years old.

How old is your wife?
She is 18 years old.

How old are your brothers and sisters?
My one brother is 20, another 10, my sister is 14 and youngest is seven years old.

What is your profession?
I am a farmer.

What is your religion?
Gautam Buddha is our religion.

How do you manage your livelihood?
We all do hard work.
Section 2
In your family?
My father lives in the ghatta (water mill), we help him to plough the field. My mother only does housework. All my brothers and sisters go to school. My one sister stays at home to look after the animals. She has to go lek (hilly area) and bensi (lowland, valley) sometimes.

Could you read and write?
I didn't go to school. Because I didn't get the chance. But when ActionAid came here I got a chance to read. I took adult education classes. First I didn't understand Parbater Bhansa (Nepali language). When I started to take class there, I can understand and can write Nepali.

What about your parents? Can they read and write?
No, they don't know.

In your family how many can read and write?
In my family, two sisters are able to write their name and my brothers can also write a little bit. Before they didn't know anything, later I also helped them. Now they can read and write. I know little bit. My parents can't read and write.

How many years has it been that in your family all had started to read and write?
In our village adult education class has started from 2044.

In which year did the school open in your village?
In 2046 school has opened in our village.

How many brother and sisters go to school from your house?
Only two. My third sister already grown up so she does not go to school. My brother 10 years old and sister seven years old go to school.

In which class do they study?
My brother studies in class three and my sister studies in class one.

What do you think about this? I mean do they get any benefit from this?
It they get education, it will benefit them. They have to know something after going to school. Many people don't know anything, that's why they have to face difficulties. If you get a good education you will get any job. You can speak and give new ideas to others. That's why it is an important thing nowadays.

What kind of difference did you find before and now in your family after getting education?
Much difference, before people used to run away seeing new people in the village because they didn't understand and know anything. If they would know something, they could ask him who he was. They were afraid to speak with him. Now we have school and everybody started to read and write. People don't run away nowadays.

Oh, people used to run away seeing strangers in village? How long it was before?
When I was 16 years old, at that time, people used to run away. That time when Bahun, Chettri would come everybody would run away thinking they might be police.
Section 3
Why did they run away?
When I asked them, they told me they were afraid to talk with new people. They thought they would beat them and take them to jail. That's why they ran to hide.

Now Bahun, Chettri come to this village, why Tamang don't run?
In those days only Chettri and Bahun had known everything. Everything, power was at their hands. Everybody was afraid to talk to them. Now people have known the value of education and everybody goes to school. That's why nobody runs from one another. All are equal.

In those days did the Bahun, Chettri decide for themselves?
In those days Tamangs were afraid of them. If they came to village Tamang would look like a dog, which was beaten by stick. They (Bahun and Chettri) would order us to do something, we had to do whatever they had told us. They would give us a choice whether we would do their work or not. If we didn't then they would scold us. Nowadays, they cannot dominate us.

That means you had change here?

Since how long did you realise this kind of thing?
First I didn't know anything. I didn't know what kind of language Bahun, Chettri would use. They speak Sherpa language. I didn't know. They talked [between] themselves. I never tried to understand it. Then this ActionAid has started adult education classes. Every time new sirs came to talk about this class. We listened to them and then we joined the classes. I was very much interested to read and write. Then I continued to take classes. Now I have learned something from this class.
In our village who knew to read and write they would dominate us in the past. In those days, we had only two persons who could read and write a little bit. We thought they had known a lot. Some requested to teach us. But they ignored us and told us it was not for everybody. And I thought what kind of persons they were? Why they didn't want to teach us then I decided to join this adult [learning] class. I have learned something.
Those who had ignored me now come to talk with me. They told me that I have known better than them, that's why from now on we are friends. I also made friendship with them. I didn't have an intention to dominate anyone. I think everybody is equal is what I taught them. And I told them, before you used to dominate me, now you have to learn from me. That's why it is not good to dominate others who do not know anything. Now they realised it. In our village big people dominated the small ones; this kind of attitude was there. Now everybody knows something, nobody can dominate anyone. If we are able to talk with great people then our future will be bright.

How long has it been that you are living here in Sursing?
I had known my forefather had lived in Nuwakot name of village at Ghandre. From there they came here doing hunting. They liked it here and settled here. First they came from Thandre to Pating. In Pating our forefather had five families. Some came to live here. At that time Sursing was a big jungle. Now it became a village. Now here in Sursing we have 60,70 houses. It's been already seven or eight generations.
Section 4
From which generation did they start to live here?
From the seventh generation.

Which religion do you worship?
We worship Gautam Buddha. In the olden days Tamangs used to worship Ghewa. It was expensive to celebrate Ghewa. We can't live it either totally, but we are doing it less than before. It is our weakness.

What kind of customs and cultures festivals do Tamangs celebrate?
We celebrate many festivals.

How many major festivals do you have?
Dashain, Chaitra Dashain, Maghe Sankranti, Sawane Sankranti, Tihar etc. After death we do Saraddhe. It is also expensive to do. After death we have to do Ghewa (funeral rites), Saraddhe. It is more difficult to survive for the alive person. Who is dead it doesn't matter to them. But who survives and has to do these things, it is a real trouble.

In your caste, for what kind of things do you spend more?
We spend more in Ghewa. Then we give expense to jard and rakshi (types of alcohol). If we get the chance to drink these in time, it will give energy. But I don't like drinking. From the childhood I didn't like it. They will drink without limit and finish all money in one sitting. How do they mange I don't know. After drinking they will fight and quarrel with the people and somebody gets hurt. Tamang always fight with each other after drinking. If they go to drink in Bhatti (?) and tell their friends to drink also and finish all money which they have earned from work. It is a bad habit to drink and play cards. If they spend their time playing cards, how they will make progress in their life? Tamangs drink too much, play cards and do Ghewa that's why they become poor.

How much you spend to do one Ghewa?
We need minimum 15,000 to 20,000 thousand. It is a very bad custom for us. They don't know how to eat fresh, they don't know how to spend money. They think if they do Ghewa it will reach to the dead person and they will get benefit from it. We have that custom. If we spend that much money on Ghewa, the dead person will get benefit. But I don't think like this. Because of spending so much money, even the living people will die. I don't get any benefit from it.

How do you spend 15000, 20,000 on Ghewa?
To do Ghewa, we need jard and rakshi, we make these from millet. We have to cook millet, rice. We have to bring rice from outside. That's why it costs more. We don't get that much rice in our village. If rice is Rs. 50 per pathi, we have to bring 9-10 muri rice. We have to buy it, maize is not enough for it. We have to give something to Lama also. And we have to give guests chillies and other foods. That's why to do Ghewa is more expensive.
Section 5
For how many days do you do Ghewa?
We have differences in this Ghewa also. Rich people will start and finish in four days. But who is poor he will finish in two days.

To do Ghewa they will take a loan, how do they pay back Rs. 15000 to 20000; Is there any way?
To pay the loan, they will sell their animals. Who have got more. And also pay interest little by little. Who does not have animals he has to sell his lands to pay loan. Who has a big family they will pay the loan as doing work at their loan giver's house. It is a very difficult custom to do Ghewa.

How much do you expend doing marriage and Chhewar (the first time a baby son’s hair is cut)?
To do marriage, we don't need much money. We can manage from 9 to 10 pathi of rice, 3-4 muri of millet and 3-4 muri of maize. And also we have to give the bride her things as a pewa (gift of assets to daughters to take with them to their husband’s house). We have to give 3000 to 5000 thousand. Who doesn't have gives only 1000 or 2000. It depends on his earning.

How do you do marriage?
First we go to ask for girls and we will fix about the date when everything goes according to plan. Then we will take janti (marriage procession from groom’s side). When we go to ask for girl, we have to take a small ghempo (pot) of jard and have to talk with the girl's parents. We will take janti there and bring the bride at home and give food to all our relatives and villagers. Then after marriage we have to take a bride at her home. At that time we have to take 3-4 small ghempo of rakshi and 3-4 small ghempo of jard with bride.

Is it possible to marry a girl without asking?
It is an old custom. In the olden days wherever they saw girls they would put them and take with them. It was a bad thing. Because many girls were small. When they took small girls, poor things, they would die of fear.

That kind of custom, bringing a girl, still it is here or not?
Nowadays we don't have that kind of custom. It's been three or four years.

Why has it disappeared?
If a girl doesn't like a boy, or if a boy uses force to marry her, then the law will catch him. So without the girl's will a boy cannot marry a girl nowadays.

What do you know about the disease 15 years before and now?
It is becoming less than before. In those days many children died. We didn't know what was the cause. Nowadays, children don't die compared with the old days. We didn't know about injections and vaccinations.

Could you tell me how people died in those days?
I don't know about this why people die. I can't say. Somebody dies at 50-60. Somebody dies at 80 and somebody dies in small age.
Section 6
How do children die? I mean from which disease?
I don't know the name of the disease. Everybody says that in the village it was a curse from god and goddess. Somebody suffers from heartache, other suffers from diarrhoea. They die from many diseases. I don't know about his.

What kinds of difference do you find before and now in the death rate of people?
Much more difference. In the olden days many children were born, most of them died. Women gave birth every year. Nowadays, it is becoming less and also death rate is decreasing.

How many would be born and how many would die before?
In those days 10 children would be born and among them three would die. But some didn't die. If seven would be born they would live all.

In your family how many died?
In my family one brother and one sister died.

At what age did they die?
My brother died when he was at the age of one year and my sister died immediately after birth.

If you become sick where do you go?
In those days we didn't have hospitals, we had to take sick people to Dhami Jhankri (traditional healer). Now we take them to the health post and hospitals. The health post is in Chanaute. First we will take to Chanaute then if it does not feel well then we take him to the hospitals in Kathmandu.

How did Dhami Jhankri cure the sick person?
Myself, I don't believe in that. Others told me that Dhami Jankri will start from looking at accheta (rice offered in worship) and tells the patient that the local god is troubling him. Dhami Jhankri had cut many goats and hens but I didn't see any improvement to the patient - a waste of money. But when you take sick people to the health post, they will diagnose it and give you medicines. From it, more people had benefited. Now we think it is better to take them to the health post than to take them to Dhami Jankri.

Except goat and hen, what other things did they use to cure the patients? How do they treat the patient?
They will cut the goat and beat the dhyangro (big drum). But when they cut the hen, they don't use dhyangro. We have to feed Dhami Jankri the whole night. It is little bit expensive.

In your village in which month do people mostly become sick?
From my experience, I know, in Mansir, Paus and Srawan people will become sick. In Mansir and Paus they will suffer from cold and cough. In Asaar and Srawan, they will suffer from diarrhoea. Most people also die in these two three months.
Section 7
How much do you use jardibutis (traditional medical treatments) from the jungle (forest) if you become sick?
Sometimes we use them. Inside wounds it does not cure but outside wound it will cure. When we cut our hand or leg we can use jardibutis. We can find jardibutis in the jungle we also use jardibutis to cure for broken hands and legs. We have to mix many jardibutis to make a paste for broken hands and legs. I don't know it all. They will mix many plants of jardibutis and make a liquid and put onto the broken spot and cover it with the bandage. After one week they will open it. It will be healed. I had seen many more like this cases which were healed later. So they can cure outside the wound but not the inside.

What will you do to spend your livelihood?
I have my own ghatta and all the time we use it. My father lives in the ghatta. When the ghatta will be damaged we will repair it. My mother does housework. My brother and sister work in gotha (livestock shed). Other sister and other brother go to school. My brother is studying in class three, now he will go to class four. My sister is studying in class one. School is also not good. Only one master is there. Sometimes he comes, sometimes takes holiday.

Why is the school not good?
It is a weakness of master and school is also far from here. I think nobody goes to school. If there is a presence of master the students would be 40-50 in number. But the master sometimes goes outside without giving information. And students are not sure about the master, whether he comes or not. That's why students also decrease in number to 20-25.

What do you think about this education, I mean what will you get from it?
I will get more benefit from it. Look at me when I didn't know anything people dominated me. Now I know something, they can't dominate me. If I had got the chance to read in my childhood I would be a different person. In our village two people knew how to write the alphabet. When we asked them to teach us they told us it was not for us to learn. Then I thought, I must learn something. That's why when the adult education class had opened I joined there to study. I went there regularly. Now I know better than them. Then they told me “In those days we used to dominate you, now you dominate us.” But I told them not to say that kind of thing. All are equal. But they still used to dominate others. And also scold small children. I told them that they will not be able to live here for long if they beat others in that way. They realised it now. Now nobody runs away, seeing a big person.

How do you manage through the whole year? Do you get enough food?
In my family, we get enough to eat. Because we all work and do all the work. We get something from lands and the ghatta. Only from lands, we don't have enough. Sometimes asina (hailstones) will damage all the crops. Sometimes crops will not be good. But from ghatta daily we get 4 mana to 1 pathi. So we don’t depend only on the field. At present we are in a good condition. Everybody works according to the routine that's why we don't have a problem to eat. But in some families members are 10 to 15, but they can't manage the work properly. They work as a labourer but didn't get enough to eat.
Section 8
What kinds of vegetables do you grow in your garden?
Maize, millet, wheat, barley, but no rice. But on the far side of stream rice can be grown. We are also trying to grow paddy at the riverside.

Comparing with the old days how many crops do you grow in one year?
In those days, we would get more maize compared with the present. Now it has been decreased. Eight or nine years back in one hal melo of land we will get 15-16 doko (baskets) maize. Nowadays, we will get only 8-9 bhari of maize. Sometimes we get 13-14, if the crops grow good. Millet grows well sometimes, it depends on the weather and land. But maize and millet productions are less than before. Banking (?) was also good in those days. Nowadays its production is becoming less.

What do you think about this?
In my opinion these days the soil is also decreasing, maybe people don't know how to make a garden. The jungle is becoming thin. In those days the forest was dense and thick, when I was seven or eight years old. Now the jungle is going to finish. Everyone cuts down trees, all the plants and trees are going to finish. That's why the soil is decreasing and the production capacity is also becoming less.

Now that the production capacity of the soil has been decreasing, what do you do for your garden to make more production?
Till now I didn't use anything in my field.

What kind of difference do you find before and now in the jungle?
When I was a child the jungle was thick. These days people cut the trees in the jungle. Sometimes a fire starts in the jungle and it is finished in one minute. People used to bring fuel wood and also use wood to make house and furniture that's why it is becoming thin.

What kind of effect, do you find from this situation to your village and lifestyle?
Many effects are happening here because of this situation. We don't get enough soil and the birds are also disappearing. Water resources become dry. If the jungle is thick then it is always cool on that side and the soil also remains soft. If the jungle is going to be destroyed like this, everything will be affected by this.

From where do you get drinking water?
We get drinking water from the stream which is very dirty. It takes one hour to bring water from there. Everywhere there is dirt. People throw their waste into the stream. We have to drink water from that. We usually bring water from down there.

Where do people go for toilets?
They go there in Kholsa (near place with a gap). Somebody makes their own toilet at their home. But most of them go to Kholsa. In Jamana village only 2 or 3 toilets are there. In our village 70 houses are here.
Section 9
Where do you go for fodder and grass?
We go to the forest.

How far do you have to go?
In the olden days, we didn't have to go far. These days we go after lunch but return in the evening.

What kinds of animals do you keep?
Cow, buffalo, goat, sheep etc.

Among these which animal do you prefer the most?
I like goat, sheep and buffalo. I prefer mostly the goat.

Why do you like goat?
Because goats do not need much grass and also goats do not fall from hill and steep side. Even small goats we can sell easily. That's why I like goats because we get benefit from them. But buffalos we can't sell easily, we have to wait for three or four years. But goats we can sell when they reach one or two years. If we sell a baby goat which will grow soon, we will get a thousand rupees for it. And for a not growing goat we get a small amount. The one which is not healthy and thin we only get 400 to 500 in a sale.

What kinds of differences do you find before and now in meat and cooking things, food etc?
There are many differences nowadays. 15 years ago we would get meat in Rs. 10 per dharni for buffalo meat. Now buffalo meat is Rs. 100 per dharni. When I was small, we would get one goat in Rs. 100 to 200. Now only for one dharni we have to pay Rs. 200 for goat meat. 6,7 years back for goat meat we had to pay Rs. 40-50 per dharni. For rice for 1 pathi we had to pay Rs. 10. We used to tell who would be able to buy rice. Now rice price is getting high. Per 1 pathi we have to pay Rs. 60. Still we have to afford it. Maize was Rs. 5 per 1 pathi. Now it is Rs. 25 per pathi. Millet is Rs. 20 per pathi. Those days in Rs. 3 or 4 we would get millet one pathi. Those days wheat was Rs. 5 per pathi. Now it is Rs. 20.

If you don't get enough grains where do you go to buy and in those days where did you go?
If we didn't get enough grains, we used to go to Mahankal, Chitrehyang. Now also we go to the same place. In those days we didn't need to go there every time. But now the population is increasing. Production is less, lands are occupied by buildings and houses. That's why we have to go regularly to bring grains.

If people don't get enough from the field, what kind of work they will do?
They work as a daily wages labourer. If somebody has 10-12 members are in Chettri, Bahun family, they go to work at Sherpa's house. They will earn Rs. 40 per day. Men will get that much and women will get only Rs. 25. When they work as a contractor they will get Rs. 100 per day.
Section 10
When they work as a labourer, what kinds of work they have to do?
To cut the firewood, to carry loads from one place to another. This kind of work carrying load from one place to another, will be given to them by Sherpas. Sherpa's things and goods they have to bring from down to hillside. Mostly people go to Helambu and Kutumsang to work for Sherpa.

What do you find, before and now about quarrelling and friendship in your family?
Many differences. In those days people would drink rakshi and would fight with all. Who would win in the fight, then other 2-3 person would beat him. Now this kind of situation is not here. I tell them, who does fight we have to tie him with dori (rope) and keep him the whole night in that condition. Then he will realise what he did wrong. Then fight will itself stop.

In your village do you have any old kinds of group?
We don't have old kinds of group. But new kinds of groups are here. First we organised a Savings Group. It helps us to do social works. In those days we had to go everywhere by ourselves to do a thing. Now because of a group we feel more comfort. We decide what to do in one day or tomorrow we do other works. We are going to open club also from this year.

Who will organise it?
First we had three members only now we have 16 members. We talked about that club with villagers also. Because people talked about us, they asked what will we do making club, maybe we will treat them badly etc. Then we convinced them, telling that, what we will get for treating them badly, where we will go. It is our village, we have to live here together. We all are one family. We want to develop our village. It is becoming dirty. First we didn't know new things, now we have known many things we are able to read and write. That's why we have opened this club to help and develop our village. Then later villagers agreed to open the club.

In those days where did people go to ask for justice?
If it was a big fight then people took him to police chauki (station). Small fights, villagers would decide in the village. Member of Ga. Bi. Sa. would look after it. Now we will decide by ourselves. First we ask them about the cause and who are guilty, we will decide it asking with both. In our village custom, if somebody hurts, then another has to give him money to cure his wound. Sometimes we ask to give 2000, 3000 sometimes 400 to 500 and also Rs. 100. It depends on the case. It is a fine for fight.

How do you decide for a fine?
If he is a crook, we ask for 3000 to 4000 but actually we don't ask for that much, it is only to frighten them. We think not to give them trouble also to make a compromise between the two.
Section 11
In those days where did you go to ask for justice?
In those days a member of Ga.Bi.Sa. would decide the case. They would take a bribe and tell people wrongly who was right, when actually who was wrong he was right. It's happened I had seen that. But now we don't agree about that kind of decision.

What kind of difference do you find before and now giving a justice?
Much difference. In those days people had to run away seeing new people. Now we don't have that kind of attitude. We told them not to run away, but to try to understand them. We all are the same, if we cut our vein our blood comes red. Now people are not afraid. In the olden days we had staff, when they would come people would be afraid and run away. They thought they would beat them. Now everybody can speak freely. In those days we didn't get the chance to speak. They used to tell us not to come near. Nowadays people become fearless.

What is the reason of this kind of change?
In my opinion, in those days people didn't understand anything now they can understand. In those days who was learned he would dominate all. But now it is the same.

What kind of relationships are there between women and men in your village? I mean does each one respect one another?
In my opinion to respect men more than women is a wrong thing. In those days people used to say don’t listen to women's talk. What could woman do? But I know that many works are done by woman. It is one women's hand to manage household works. She has to cook, wash all things buy herself. When she wants to talk, then why people will stop her to speak. It is wrong thing. People say what women will do, going to school? But in my opinion women will do better than men going to school.

Do you have this prejudice still in your village?
No, we don't have it too much. But it has not gone completely from the village.

When you want to sell your animals and lands who will give the decision?
Husband will take charge. Somebody does not concern this kind of matter with his wife. But in my family, we all discuss and give the decision.
In those days and now what kind of difference do you find in woman's cleverness?
Nowadays, women have become more clever than before. Some women can talk with another person who knows something. In the olden days, people didn't give any chances to the woman to talk with others. Now it has disappeared all are the same men and women. But still we have some people who dominate women.

In your village do all love their children?
I have seen most cases. If she has given birth to a son the family will care about her (the mother). But if she has given birth to a baby girl they will neglect her. She has to do the operation of family planning after giving a birth to a son. But she cannot do this operation until she gives a birth to a son. If she gives birth to a girl, she has to continue till the son is born. The son is always in the lap, but the daughter will be put outside.
Section 12
Why they love sons more than the daughters?
In my opinion, the daughter has to go one day to her home, but the son will stay with them. That's the main reason. The same blood but they prefer not to give her angsa (property). She will not get anything from her father's property. They don't love her. That's why women are always neglected by men.

In your village do you find any difference in terms of giving education to boys and girls?
In those days they would not give permission to send a girl to school. Now it is more or less the same. In my view we have to give more education to daughters than sons, because she doesn't get angsa. I had read in one magazine that a girl has more rights than a boy.

In your village, whom do you respect the most?
We go to ask for advice to Sadasya sometimes. That's why we will respect him more.

If an election is held in your village, to whom you will give your vote?
In those days we had to give our vote to the person. Sometimes to Lama, sometimes to Bahun, Chettri. Now we have party system. In Mahankal there was a leader selected by our village. Now from our village a leader has been chosen from the Communist party he is in Taar. His name is Gora Bahadur Thapa.

In your village, has anyone chosen as a leader from your caste?

Because we don't understand what people talk about and we don't have enough money.

In this Ichok village, whose majority is here?

Then why don’t Tamangs elect for Adhyachha?
We don't have unity that's why it is like this. We don't have brains.

Why do Tamangs feel like this?
We don't have unity, we can't discuss anything together. All feel great by themselves. Everyone is against each other. That's why we don't choose a leader.

How many Tamangs stood for Adhyachha till now?
In those days many Tamangs are going for election. From Congress two people, from Prajatantra two people, from Communist 2 people. From Ichok one Tamang has stood. From Tallo Majuwa two people have stood. But I didn't get the exact numbers of their vote. The election is won by the Communists.

In your village the majority is Tamang but why Tamang didn't win the election?
Because most of Tamangs didn't go to give the vote. If one goes he will give to Prajatantra, others will give to Congress. They don't have unity. They fought before with each other. That's why he doesn't want to give to that Tamang with whom he had fought. They will think it is better to give vote to Chettri, Bahun. That's why they never win in the election.
Section 13
If people want to do job where do they go?
We don't have many people who do service outside one or two Tamangs work in Kathmandu.

How many of them went to foreign places?
Young go there to work as a kuli (labourer) to make a road. I didn't go there that's why I don't know anything about there. They don't bring enough money.

How do they spend their money?
They will spend it on playing cards.

From your village how many people have gone to India to work?
Not many. In four only one will go to work. I didn't see any benefit for them who go to work there. They only make profit for another country. If they go to foreign countries then they will make good profit. They spend their 15, 16 years in a foreign country, they have to return one day. When they return they don't have anything here. It is very bad for them.

How many girls go from your village to foreign places?
Girls also go to foreign places, in four, two will go.

What they do there?
I don't know about their work. Some will return some will settle there.

How much money they will bring, when they return from their work?
Someone brings more money Rs. 30,000 to 35,000 some will bring nothing.

What they will do there?
I don't know. They go to Bombay, Calcutta and return. In my memory in olden days girls were great in number here in our village, now girls are becoming less in number.

Who will take them to town?
Both girls and boy will take them. They will tell her that she will not have to do hard work and will get everything. She also agrees to go with them.

How many girls were gone from your village till now?
40, 50 girls were gone.

How many had returned?
Not many, only 15 girls returned. They will come after three or six years.
Where they spend their money?
Some build their house and buy lands. But they don't get much profit, and also buys rakshi for all. Some buy land of 2000 to 3000. Some will spend money carelessly. Money is also gone and her body is also useless.

Do they marry or not, those who comes from Bombay?
Some will do the marriage. But some don't want to do. But in the village people will not accept them. Others will doubt them. Before it was more obvious but now they will feel nothing. But people say not to sleep with that kind of woman.
Section 14
How long ago did it start that girls go to India?
It was before many years ago. I remember it’s been already 30-35 years.

Why do girls like to go there?
In my opinion, a girl who has gone already, when she returns and tells others about that place and shows them her fashionable clothes, other will be attracted by those things. She will persuade others to go to that place. Some girls will tell me, that they don't have to work and I replied then, oh it is easy to do that kind of thing [laughs].

What do they say when they return from that place?
Some will say it is not good to go there, we have already been there but you don't go there. But others will say it is our wish to go we and will go again and again.

Among those who said it is good, who said it is bad?
Among 10 only three or four said it is bad, don't go to that place.

What do villagers think about this work?
Most of the people think it is good to send them there. If other's daughter has gone there then they will send their daughter also. They think if other's daughter can wear new shoes and dress why not our daughter.

How do you feel about this?
I don't like it. I feel they are selling their pride to another country.

What does your club think about this matter?
We are thinking about this. Those who have gone we can't return them. But those who are here we have to advise them. If they try they can find many works here in our country.

How much has this club has tried to improve this?
We are trying hard, giving advice to villagers. If she don't agree with us we will catch her. We are very strict on it.

Do you take them to police chauki?
Not yet. Before we had this kind of case. But two boys had hidden her from villagers. We thought they had taken her to Kathmandu, but later we came to know they all were in the same village we caught them and gave to the police station. It was at the time of election. Somebody gave a bribe to the police. They told us, “Hawaldar, is not here, if he comes we will do an investigation.” They kept us there. But later they had freed them. Then after we that we haven't taken anyone to the police chauki.

Which was the happiest moment in your life?
I don't know.
Section 15
Which was the worst day in your life?
I had suffered more. My father used to drink all the time, he did nothing, he didn't care about the housework. I started to plough in the field from nine years. I nearly died, because I was so thin. People used to dominate me. Then I thought if I would go like this I would die one day. And when I was in gotha I started to learn something. If you don't know anything even your parents will neglect you.

Interviewer’s note: Sursung village is a remote village in Sindhupalchok district where only Tamang live. It is situated in 65000 height, below the mountain. There are no facilities of transport and communication. There is only one primary school as the name of organisation. It is difficult to live here for the people of this village. Their earning source is a daughter, they send them to Bombay, Banaras, or Calcutta for prostitution. This man has told everything on the basis of 10, 15 years of his experiences.