Poland glossary












July 1999



After prior explanation to Mr. Kazimierz Skowronek of the general scheme of the interview and the questions, I had to join the conversation rarely, because Mr. Kazimierz received a topic that was familiar to him in great degree as a forester and tourist guide of several categories. As one can spot in the interview Mr. Kazimierz was able to hold a monologue on all the topics that were interesting to me.

Section 1
Could you introduce yourself, and tell me few words about your job?
My name is Kazimierz Skowronek and I am a forester in forest district Strachocin in forest inspectorate Ladek Zdrój. I have worked in forests for 27 years. I live in a forest settlement built at current times, in 1987, which is a colony of forest district Strachocin. Forest inspectorate Ladek Zdrój is one of the four forest inspectorates, among Miedzylesie, Bystrzyca and Zdroje; some time ago Zdroje belonged to the forest inspectorate Duszniki, and now it is within forest inspectorate Szczytna. The structure of stand of trees in Klodzko Valley is more less equal. It consists in approximately 90% of spruce that was caused by the development of mining industry in areas of Klodzko Valley. The mining and the industry, metallurgy most of all, caused great exploitation of forests because there was a need for wood. Many ironworks were established, especially in mediaeval times. On this area there were ironworks in Stronie, Strachocin, Stara Morawa, and they were wood-fired, which demanded big amount of the wood. This situation led to intensified felling of forests. The ironworks in Stronie Slaskie was also wood-fired. This secular, industrial use of wood is one of the reasons for lack of primeval forests in area of Klodzko Valley, in particular in massif of Snieznik Klodzki. Older, less changed stands of trees have been preserved only in further distance from ironworks.
In the middle of 20th century a new danger to the mountain forest appeared. It was caused by an inflow of polluted air from the south. A new generation of brown coal-fired power works, which have been established in the northern Checks, emit large quantities of sulphur. That led to dying-out of stands of trees above the height of 800 meters above see level. Climatic conditions were much more difficult for the flora, it concerns such phenomena as frequent processes of freezing and unfreezing, fog forming, hoar-frost and strong winds. In such conditions, relatively low quantities of sulphur in the air cause dying-out of forest. Perhaps about... how structure of species looked like, from such a historical outline one can say, that 90% of stands of trees in mediaeval times consisted of deciduous trees. Currently structures of species in particular forest inspectorates in area of Klodzko Valley is presented in following numbers: 93% of spruce, while beech only 4%, birch 1, and the others – pine, larch are just minute per cent, whereas in forest inspectorate Miedzylesie 83% of area is occupied by spruce, in forest inspectorate Bystrzyca there is 87% of spruce, 5% of beech and other species – 8. The same situation is in Zdroje, where spruce is major species.
Obviously all the works in the forest industry are towards reconstructing those stands of forests, which means going back to historical settlements and to composition of species in which deciduous species will be dominant; especially I mean beech and sycamore which are represented in a small number in the area of Ladek among others in Puszcza Jaworowa in the Morawy Natural Sanctuary. It is caused by ... the works I mean... the works will cause an increase of forestage... deciduous forest I mean... it is caused by the fact, that habitat types in area of Klodzko Valley are mainly mixed forests and mixed mountain forests in which... in which in 7th land deciduous species are dominant. Mixed mountain forest should consist of about 40% of spruce, 40% of beech and about 20% such an admixturous, for example... fir as far as deciduous trees are concerned. Primeval mountain forest – well, 70% of spruce - well, here it would be closer to the ideal, but because there is much more of mixed mountain forest, so that... such optimal program, that would cause... an increase of deciduous stands of forests... will be satisfactory, if it reaches up to 60% of spruce. That should be all right. Long... far-reaching plans, that is year 2030,2030 – this is the upper limit, within which this natural forest, which used to exist here, well...should dominate.
Plans are quite bold, but they will surely be carried into effect, mainly because this reconstruction of stands of forests is observed by all the plans of renovation of loss. In the area of forest inspectorate Ladek Zdrój these works are having been continued for years and it will certainly be realised. In others forest inspectorates it surely goes... the works go in this direction. For sure big plus is that it is analysed and watched these...such environmental and these...perhaps such actions of nature and it helps us in realisation of this reconstruction. There are also some natural renewals, in latest years such an abundance of beech caused also intensification of... these growths of beech in this area as this admixture and as a later prevailing species. As I mentioned, this... this exploitation of stands of forests in area of Klodzko Valley, well, began right in mediaeval times, when there was a development of mining, which is now...
The area of Snieznik massif is a special place in Europe. The borderline of tree catchments of Baltic, Northern and Black seas join here. It is on the top of Trójmorski peak, that is 1145 meters high. It is also one of the geologically oldest areas in Europe; it consists of Pre-Cambrian metamorphic rocks. In marbles and dolomites original environmental phenomena have developed, namely Karst, and with the presence of numerous minerals: iron, copper, silver, uranium, an intense mining was connected. That where the contrast between precious environmental objects, formed in these mountains during long geomorphic cycles and symptoms of brutal exploitation of stocks, started in 12th century, comes from.
If we mention environment protection, so one should mention, that... whole area of forest inspectorate Ladek Zdrój is situated within Snieznik Landscape Park, or in its neighbourhood. Due to particular environmental values four reservations have been established: Snieznik Klodzki is the first – floristic reservation and landscape natural monument reservation of whole area of 192 hectares, established to preserve primeval forest and Sub-Alpine cooms. The second is Puszcza Snieznej Bialki – a partial forest reservation of area of 22 hectares, that particularly preserves old forest of prealps of mountain primeval forest, beech woods and mountain sycamore. The third is Nowa Morawa – forest reservation of area of 88 hectares, for preservation precious ecotype of spruce in mountain beech wood, upper prealpine mixed forest. And the fourth, the most popular, is Niedzwiedzia Cave – geological reservation, partial of area of 88 hectares, for preservation of the cave with the remains of Pleisticenic animals together with wooded part of a valley.
There... there are many monuments of nature; the most interesting is Radochów Cave, which was examined at the beginning of our century by the German professor Pax. At the time these were German premises, but all his works are translated into Polish. And he was to claim firmly, that some representatives of mankind used to live in Radochów cave. There is an interesting detail connected with the fact, that one of the corridors in Niedzwiedzia Cave has a name of a Primeval Man, it is because scientists influenced by the close presence of Radochów Cave, wanted to find these traces in Niedzwiedzia Cave, but unfortunately until now no such traces have been found there. However geological examination, led by means of electroresistance method, indicated much of undiscovered emptiness, so perhaps such traces will be found in the future, even if not, Niedzwiedzia Cave will enlarge.
There are many species round here... preserved, among them pine... obviously I mean flora, these are: stone pine, dwarf mountain pine, ivy, periwinkle, veratrum, club-moos, and arnica which now... is...becomes to be popular as a healing herb and even planted. Out of preserved animals there are: chamois, hedgehog, bat, black stork and raven. The area of forest inspectorate Ladek, that partially contains four communes, because whole commune Stronie Slaskie, whole Ladek Zdrój, well and partially Klodzko and partially Bystrzyca, and it is currently a large area of trips, thanks to the development of tourism and most of all to the station Czarna Góra (Black Mountain), which also caused fragmentary deforestation the top of Czarna Góra (Black Mountain). One of, as one could say, the most beautiful chair-lifts in Poland, because there are four ski-lifts of length of 1000 meters and a chair-lift of length of 1350 meters. That also causes a large inflow of tourists, which is connected with the penetration of tourist tracks in mountain area.
Section 3
What else could you say about this area?
There is one interesting detail connected with the exploitation of marble in Stronie Slaskie. In 1966 during exploitation of a quarry Kletno 3, Niedzwiedzia Cave was discovered, which after 17 years of explorations was opened for tourists in 1983 and which was seen by a number of tourists from all over the World, not only from Poland. It (the cave) is situated in massif of Snieznik Klodzki on the slope of Stroma Mountain. Góra Stroma (Steep Mountain) is 1166 meters (above see level) high, whereas the entrance to the cave is situated on the height of 793 meters, so there is always 400 meters of the mountain above the tourists.
Niedzwiedzia Cave is a quite big object, length of footpaths is about 3 kilometres, and the difference of levels is about 60 meters. It had been explored by the groups of scientists before the opening, and the scientific examinations are still being held there. In Niedzwiedzia Cave there is very nice, rich dripstone; there are stalagmites, stalactites, stalagnates and beautiful calcite cascades on the whole passage... on the whole route. Niedzwiedzia Cave began... its beginnings takes in a quarry Kletno 3, and finishes in a quarry Kletno 4, and there some perturbances connected with this, because it was necessary to close this... One and a second quarry, that caused further outcomes, namely exploitation of a quarry Kletno 1 became to threaten the cave and so two years ago the quarry was closed, and so there are no more dangers.
There are some interesting facts connected with hydrological tests, namely that waters from Snieznik Massif, although majority of it is situated in Poland, flow in not more than 40% to Poland, and 60% to Czechs. Examinations of rhodaninum and uraninum, such water colouring-stuff, showed that the largest quantities of this clear water flow to Czechs. There is no flow of rivers between Polish and Czechs sides because of stability of Snieznik Massif. At the time of the flood 1997 there were some comments going on, that water from Czechs started to cover our valley, but it was not the truth, as well as it was not the truth, that exploitation of forests was the reason of the flood. Forest industry is based on 10 year plans and their realisation does not do any harm to forests, on the contrary - if the plans are not realised, especially as far as the carrying cuttings are concerned... it weakens stands of forests.
Section 4
So what, in your opinion, caused the flood?
It is clear what caused the flood – large rainfalls, but it surly was not exploitation of forests that caused such a quick flow of water, but most of all disuse of agricultural areas. Simply for some years these areas are not exploited agriculturally, agricultural grounds are... they lie fallow, long lasting withering of flora and overgrowth form such pillows, such as... how to say it...thatched roofs, so that flowing water on a big slope from it... on that old, withered grass, and lodged new ones, it causes ground to remain dry, which was proved by pointing during the flood. It was dry up to 30 centimetres. Water simply flew down as on a thatched roof, on a tough ground, so a large amount of water was getting here at a high speed, which strengthened the flood, no that it would... that it would have stopped that water, but it would have delayed the flow of the water, if those areas had been used agriculturally, and now there are... these hundreds, almost thousands of hectares, which are not exploited, and the withering every year flora causes forms such pillow so the water on steeper slopes goes down much quicker. However down there on the area... areas with buildings the flow of the water was really fast and fixing any bigger dams in the mountain areas would not work, because water would get much quicker to lower parts and then...
If we imagined situation of Stronie with its large number of hard equipment used in its factories, quarries, forests and ironwork – well in a couple of days it would be possible to embank those rivers, but if we had made three metres dams, Ladek, that is situated almost 7 metres lower would have had to make dams of 10 height, not to mention Klodzko. Firstly it would make the water to go faster, because those overflow-arms had stopped the... the speed of water and the water was not flowing that fast even to this Klodzko, that was strongly flooded, but it took some time.
That is why such cataclysms are inevitable and we can only work on its results, because we are still not able to work on causes. We can only warn earlier. For sure on more plain areas storage reservoirs will help, but on the very mountains one can also organise storage in some reservoirs, but it will not work on a larger scale. Also with the flood from 1937 which was identical. There are some pictures from the period. It was identical. There some pictures of dike in Stronie Slaskie, which identically... in almost identical quantities let water out; almost one metre over the dike. And at the time of that flood it was the same, so it was comparable. It proves that water in Klodzko must have been also high, not so high, about one metre lower, was not it? Because there... on that monastery in Klodzko, it is marked. Besides it was there on that main bridge such... what year water reached.
So, surely the fact, that forests are not exploited is not the reason that the flood was in town. Anyway harm to forest, that was caused by... large harm, mainly on the roads, bridges and culverts shows... well it shows, that forest played its important role, which is just to sustain the water. Because if we did right drainage, which is not always a good thing...all hydrological... instruments in forest, they could accelerate the speed of water going down. Because if drainage would be done properly, water has not spilt, destroying roads it formed hold-ups such of... of these stones, sand that made water flowing round various slopes and that slowed down the speed of water. Perfect drainage would cause a quick flow of water, it is particularly caused by the fact, that roads in mountain forest are... in mountains non wooded, because they are especially on the contour line (side storied surface of mountain) and so water falling from the contour line gets on the road and if the drainage was done properly, I mean these drainage ditches, it would cause really fast flow of water down and that would strengthen...larger harm than it did till this time.
So those who claim, that forest exploitation caused harm on this area, are wrong, especially that forestage before the war was much smaller than it is nowadays. Because forestage has increased, so there is much more forest than there used to be, but as I have said lots of harm was done due to lack of agriculture. The land is left untilled and it is covered with grass, old grass, because it is important it caused fast flow into the valley, and that is why harm was so serious.
In the twenties uranium exploitation started in Kletno, it was done by the Russians, they keep laughing, that it was done with Polish hands. But thanks to that a settlement Morawki in Stronie Slaskie was built for those miners that used to work there. Currently it is a big hospital, which is situated within an area of this settlement. The deposites were not too big, but highly valuable uranium blends of which Germans did know, but they did have enough time to make use of them. Those were exploited till mid-50, namely in 1956 the exploitation was finished and uranium started to be exploited on the other side of Snieznik in Czechs. From here when we go towards Kletno, there are such big waste-heaps, these are posturanic. These days they are being used a little for forest roads renovations. Latest satellite examinations showed, that there are some remains of this uranium, but they are even not thinking of using it. People working with this uranium, they did not work in safe conditions, because they did not use any type of security measures. Those uranic blends are... such colourful are, well, they were sorted by workers with bare hands, and also radiation was huge and not many people survived till these days, very few, although they were quite young then.
As far as a settlement is concerned, all those repatriates coming here, well, they were not welcomed and a support of those who were establishing some kind of authorities, because natives were moved out on such principle, that every village had its day and its train, and so the whole village with they belongings, that could not be heavier than 40 kilograms, were leaving this territory. So there were various times of departure for Gieraltów, Morawa and other others for Kletno, the other days I mean. Poles did not settle in these territories from the very beginning, mainly because it was a zone by the borderline and that collided with the security. Such example could be given, there is a fourteen-kilometre fragment from Stronie to Bielice – there were three... three such army barriers and then one had to... had to prove his or her identity. Even if the person was going to... mushroom picking to the forest in Bielice, although he or she had a permission, had to show it three times. It was connected with some problems for those people. Not once... they had crossed two of such barriers and they were stopped by the third one.
It led to a devastation of homes...not many people lived here, and they did not care for it. It was the reason, that today at least a half of a village... has been totally devastated, and it almost does not exist, and the rest of the buildings were ruined, so there are not many people living here. More or less the same situation was with towns, for example with a town like Boleslawów, which is now a small village with 250 inhabitants, and it used to have civic rights. And so the people were could say discriminated because of the fact that they lived in borderlands and that is why the number of inhabitants was decreasing.
In the area of Klodzko Valley there were almost three times more people living before the war than nowadays. And with such vast building. Well, there were not any blocks of flats, there was no family building. It made people go away mainly from villages and towns, because this invigilation was so big. There were many various collaborators and for any reason they were discriminated. Agriculture at the moment... as well as in the whole country undergoes serious regress, one could say that it disappears. As we used to have some thousands of cows officially registered, now there are about a hundred, so...some tens, one could say, so there is not much in terms of farming. For sure farming in the mountains... of type as our farmers used to lead does not bring profits, because of low output of crops. Some time ago Klodzko Valley used to be a granary of Lower Silesia, lots of farming was going on here. Before the war lots of flax was planted here, that is why there are so many, on these fields that were afforested, as well as on those that were not afforested, there are so many stones.
After tillage stones were collected, that is why some people are shocked by these piles of these stones that are so characteristic sight of this region, so there are many in forests and fields that still exist, there are lots of the stones. With the current, as I say agriculture and profitability that varied production like swine, cow, hen and ram will never come back. It will be such a relict by nowadays promoted and organised agro-touristic farms... that keep for entertainment some goats, sheep and cow for fresh milk. These lands after being brought into cultivation in more tourist meaning... these agricultural lands will be gradually aforrested. Surely in condition they are now they are even a danger to forests. A danger are these meadows, the fields that became... tilled, which became meadows, pastures, and they are not mowed and during the draught they are a real fire threat, which was proved many times. We had forests burning because of the meadows that are being burnt by the farmers from time to time. There are some farmers that make some hay for the horses, which are kept here for woodcutting, because they work for the forests. Only because of that horses are kept here. There are some horse riding farms that need this hay...
Section 7
What can you say about the condition of local forests?
At the moment forests... their condition is good, highly evaluated, so that the harm done by the industry, the gases, dust; we basically overcame it. In upper parts stands of trees were practically reconstructed, the plantations are mainly for deciduous trees: larch, other species, which however throw away this assimilative apparatus for the winter, which are regenerated for spring.
Monitoring stations show low pollution, that does not influence much assimilative apparatus of the trees here for... reduction of litter of conifer needles, withering, and turning yellow as it used to occur at the time of high industrial emissions. The stands of trees are practically being taken care of, all the consequences of disasters, among others from year 1984 – it was quite big, only in forest inspectorate Ladek 400 thousand steres were... destroyed due to fallings and trees that broke. And at the moment we handled this situation, so that practically condition of stands of forests is very good. Due to the fact that we as a forest inspectorate are in a landscape park, there is this dualism of the authorities, so the managers of the park take care of it, look after it and inform us about any abnormalities and we deal with it. At the moment... any accidental harm after some... fallings, winds, even not strong ones are immediately being dealt with and there are less in percentage of... planned cuttings. Currently we heading towards planned farming, sometimes there are some cases of bark, and these ones are also being dealt with immediately.
The condition of neighbouring forest inspectorates is also identical, because it is taken into consideration in a complex way and these actions are alike and in the same direction as in forest inspectorate Ladek. Forest inspectorate Ladek, we have to add, as a mountain forest inspectorate is one of the biggest in Poland. It consists of 18 sub-districts plus one for hunting and one for planting. This for planting produces enough material that is being currently used for renewals and responds to habitat types. The hunting forest district takes care of hunting in the area. There are some marked districts for foreign hunters, while...[phone rings]
While the stands of trees that suffer the most, most of all plantations and... and young forests are destroyed by the game. And the biggest harm and the largest expenses of forest inspectorate, because it is not Ladek only, are due to game. Costs are from the moment of planting trees, because in the first year the plantations have to be fenced in, or preserved by means of chemical stuff – emol, that is... this is very expensive and because of laboriousness as well as the cost of the stuff that we use a lot. The stands of... the second, the third class as young forest are really destroyed, especially by deer. This is so common and in so large percentage, that it is a serious problem, and even in spite of criticism we have to undertake some reductive shootings, which if are not increased in the near future, harm especially in young forests and crops will be incommensurable in spite of all these protections. During springtime this harm is done and this is one of the main problems.
Currently as far as renewal of forests is concerned this is a problem of priority nature and it has to be solved in such a direction to... to decrease the number of game in the area, among others hunting forest district in spite of efforts: constructing hunting instruments like feeding racks, hunting meadows of all types, and a large amount of coigns of vantage that in a way influence the number of planed reduction of game at the time of shootings, well, it does a lot on this field – it is connected with large costs. But it is good here, that this hunting exists, that... the forestry, and the people and in spite of... hunters, that are in the area, they take care of their fields and feeding racks are always filled. It shows, that there is a lot of game, to much for capacity of hunting areas, that are always counted to a thousand hectares: a number of deer, boar and game as such.
Lately the big problem was... a large number... many foxes, caused by a mass vaccination of fox; the vaccine was dropped from the planes. It caused a considerable number of births. That is why there is almost no hare that is killed by fox at time of mating... and at the time of births they are immediately killed by fox, so now fox is considered nuisance, and even hunters get an extra premium of 220 zloty per every hunted fox which surely already helped, because the population has decreased.
Section 8
I have got one more question: is the fauna changing in this area, or does it remain the same in the forest?
Fauna... In this area there were no chamois, there were not so many boars – they were brought here. Now, for many years, deer, boars I have mentioned and as I said now there are problems. Because the capacity of the hunting districts, this is particularly caused by the fact, that these are coniferous monoliths and the base of feeding is not so big. So by all means the stands of trees are being destroyed, if I mention that stands of the second class of age are destroyed in 100 %, that is a considerable problem. Destroyed in this case mean: barked trees are exposed to contagion and the tree... its wood is rotten and its value in facts equals to nought. Well... it is being deteriorated from young age, so it should be cut down these...and plant new ones.

Does the big number of game enhance many enthusiasts here?
Oh a lot. Hunters from Germany, Austria, and there were some from Lebanon. There are always hunters from such... verified companies as “Diana”, which last year bought all the shots, not only in forest inspectorate Ladek, in Jugów, here in Lower Silesia. They practically do all the plans, which are made. If they do not make it, our native hunters do it, because as I have mentioned, in spite of the plans... the capacities of the hunting districts are smaller from the number of the game present in the area, so the plans that exist which, in my opinion should be bigger, they have to be made and they are. If the foreign hunters will not shot, our hunters shot, even workers of forestry – we get shots and we make all that should be done.

And what about the water purity in rivers?
Well waters... those that flow from forests are in the first class of purity. Trout is present everywhere in streams, at the time of spawning they are met in the smallest stream. The situation with the lower streams, which flow through villages, is worse though. As we know last flood have destroyed many cesspools, manure pools, and this dirt, which gets to rivers, has an influence on water purity. Although they are still in quite high class of purity, there are species of fish, which demand clear water, present.
Well in Stronie there is a brand new purification plant, where... where waste is being neutralised by means of Cola bacteria. So...that it is...well, perhaps I would not drink that water myself, as some of the managers of purification plats did in the western countries [laughter], but there surely is a big advantage of this town, that it has got such a purification plant, because many towns in Poland have not got such. There surely something should be done about cesspools, but this problem will surely be solved, because there is hydrological service present in the area; they examine water frequently. If something is wrong, they write it down, so the people are ordered to set up cesspools if they keep any kind of farm animals. The cesspools will be there.
Section 9
And what induced you to choosing such profession?
And that is a young man, a boy one could say [laughter], I somehow thought, that I like work in the forest, as a forester. However I rather thought...everybody always like it, but imagination of work is different [laughter] and reality something else. And it caused that I went to school of forestry, and I have been the forester for many years. Now my son got to technical school of forestry and we are going to have such a family tradition. [laughter]

But in your family nobody ever...
No, there was no a single person working in forest. So I am the first, but I have my successor, and one can say that it is going to be from one generation to another. [laughter]

And do you like your job?
I surely do. Well, this is kind of an outdoor work, as it is said to be. And it continously changes – it is not a monotonous job. And one can see the results of it; year after year you can see what has been done. There was a forest – we were not here, it is going to remain when we are gone. And it is a beautiful place in the area of forest inspectorate Ladek you have these all mountains everywhere: Bialskie, Zlote, Krowiarki and Bystrzyckie can be seen, so one is constantly on, well, this... horizon.

And would you like to move somewhere, or would you like to stay here?
No. I would not think of a move, because man has got his roots here in this area. Besides others have this home feeling in such a way, that a move... as they say old trees are not to be transplanted. 27 years of work it is a lot in the same, practically, place, because I used to work as a wood-sorter in five forest inspectorates, besides Bystrzyca, Miedzylesie, and Zdroje I had Jugów. So I know the structure of these forest inspectorates, I worked in all of them, but surely here in Ladek is the best, and there is this... not to boast... boast.
Well not to compliment this region too much this is the place with the largest developing possibilities... not to say that with such possibilities in Poland, due to building Czarna Góra, which is an impossible undertaking to be realised, with all the ecological movements rows about a single tree I can hardly imagine realisation of Czarna Góra resort as it have been planned. It would be impossible to cut down and deforest a great number of trees on such steep slopes and with such social mentality, I think it would be impossible. And the place itself is managed in respect of tourism... practically, there is... just to mention a beautiful indoor swimming pool, placed on the second floor, and this is something special as to compare to other towns, and there is a beautiful gymnastic hall, and a beautiful club “Okraglak” – that is round as they say – without corners. [laughter]
If we associate with a town with six thousand of inhabitants, the investments... If we take into consideration, that building the swimming pool cost 70 billion zlotych, and the whole budged of commune is a hundred, so if we compare such large undertaking, so surely communes like Kobierzyce or Polkowice could afford it... Oh, Polkowice the Aquapark, well, this is the third richest commune in Poland. And the resort of Czarna Góra, as soon as it stars will be comparable to Zakopane. Even Zakopane has not got such ski lifts as Czarna Góra has, obviously as soon as it will be finished. At the moment a beautiful road is being finished, they are finishing infrastructure, so foresters will surely have a use of it, there will be an easy access to forest areas.
Section 10
What would you like to add?
What could be added? Surely after these structural changes, there is this... nostalgia of the Germans, who used to live here... they have bigger chances of development, because they are going to come here to their roots, to the places where their grandfathers were born, and this will strengthen tourism and the... Thanks to that the infrastructure will grow and the areas... although that Klodzko Valley is one of the most beautiful place, to say it, in the country, it still has this chance, this perspective of development because of the connections with the... the richest part of Europe.

Thank you.

1954 – a year of birth
1972 – school graduation an work of forester
Around 1981-84 – births of children
1997 – a flood
1999 – present day